|dc.description.abstract||This dissertation attempts to demonstrate that Luchuan is a language which has a
grammatical category of evidentiality. Luchuan is the only sister language of
Japanese; however, since they are considered to have diverged as early as the
beginning of the 8th century, their vocabularies and grammars have developed in
somewhat different directions. The grammatical category of evidentiality is one of
the categories which Luchuan has developed in different ways from Japanese.
Evidentiality is a linguistic category which marks source of information.
Evidentials have often been overlooked in the study of Luchuan, and the morphology
has often been misanalysed as belonging to other grammatical categories because of
failure to take account of the concept of evidentiality. On the one hand, some existing
studies classify these evidential markers as temporal categories, such as tense or
aspect, and on the other hand, some studies claim that these evidential markers
should belong to the category of modality. I argue that both approaches have failed to
describe Luchuan grammar accurately, and that the concept of evidentiality can
resolve problems which other existing approaches could not deal with adequately.
The main purpose of this study is to analyze the evidentials in Luchuan
systematically and to formulate a model of the evidential system of this language.
The proposal I make and defend in this dissertation is that Luchuan has a
grammatical evidential system which contains one direct evidential and three indirect
evidentials (Inference, Assumed, and Reportative). I argue that these four evidential
markers should be considered to belong to a single grammatical category. Further, I
discuss the relation between evidentials and other grammatical categories such as
tense, aspect, and modality. It is obvious that these categories are closely related in
Luchuan, but I attempt to tease apart their functions as clearly as possible.
The Direct evidential -N is used when the speaker has 'direct evidence‘, such
as direct experience or direct perceptions. When direct evidence is unavailable but
the best possible source of information‘ is available, such as a report from a
participant in the event, the use of -N is licensed. The Inferential evidential tee is
used when the speaker makes an inference based on direct evidence. The Assumed
evidential hazi is different from the Inferential evidential in that it does not require direct evidence, but the speaker‘s assumption has to be based on knowledge of habits
or general knowledge. Finally, Reportative evidential Ndi indicates that the speaker
acquired information from someone else, mainly orally report but in any case
through the use of language.
Luchuan is an endangered or moribund language which has very limited native
speakers. Therefore, the principal focus of this dissertation is a descriptive study of
verb forms whose syntactic features have not been fully described: for example, I set
out whether or not each evidential can appear in negative or interrogative sentences,
whether or not each evidential can have a non-past or a past form, whether or not
each evidential markers can co-occur a subject of any person.
Although my primary focus is a description of the evidential system of this
language; at the same time, I relate my discussion to cross-linguistic issues such as
how evidentiality is related to epistemic modality, with the intention that this work
should constitute a contribution to the typological and theoretical study of
evidentiality. I propose that evidentiality should be distinguished from the category
of modality because in Luchuan the Direct evidential and the Reportative evidential
belong to the category of evidentiality, though the other two indirect evidentials ―
the Inferential and Assumed― might be regarded as an overlap category between
evidentiality and modality.||en