Spatial relationship based scene analysis and synthesis
In this thesis, we propose a new representation, which we name Interaction Bisector Surface (IBS), that can describe the general nature of spatial relationship. We show that the IBS can be applied in 3D scene analysis, retrieval and synthesis. Despite the fact that the spatial relationship between different objects plays a significant role in describing the context, few works have focused on elaborating a representation that can describe arbitrary interactions between different objects. Previous methods simply concatenate the individual state vectors to produce a joint space, or only use simple representations such as relative vectors or contacts to describe the context. Such representations do not contain detailed information of spatial relationships. They cannot describe complex interactions such as hooking and enclosure. The IBS is a data structure with rich information about the interaction. It provides the topological, geometric and correspondence features that can be used to classify and recognize interactions. The topological features are at the most abstract level and it can be used to recognize spatial relationships such as enclosure, hooking and surrounding. The geometric features encode the fine details of interactions. The correspondence feature describes which parts of the scene elements contribute to the interaction and is especially useful for recognizing character-object interactions. We show examples of successful classification and retrieval of different types of data including indoor static scenes and dynamic scenes which contain character-object interactions. We also conduct an exhaustive comparison which shows that our method outperforms existing approaches. We also propose a novel approach to automatically synthesizing new interactions from example scenes and new objects. Given an example scene composed of two objects, the open space between the objects is abstracted by the IBS. Then, an translation, rotation and scale equivariant feature called shape coverage feature, which encodes how the point in the open space is surrounded by the environment, is computed near the IBS and around the open space of the new objects. Finally, a novel scene is synthesized by conducting a partial matching of the open space around the new objects with the IBS. Using our approach, new scenes can be automatically synthesized from example scenes and new objects without relying on label information, which is especially useful when the data of scenes and objects come from multiple sources.