Domestic demand and network management in a user-inclusive electrical load modelling framework
Interest has been growing in the interaction of various power demand transformations, such as demand side management (DSM) and voltage control, with the power demand. Initial studies have highlighted the need for a better understanding of the power demand of low voltage (LV) residential networks. Furthermore, it is expected that future alteration of the residential appliance mixture, because of the advances in technology, will have an impact on both the demand curve as well as the electrical characteristics. This thesis presents a study of the impact of current and future household load on the power demand curve and the network operation. In order to achieve this, a bottom-up load modelling tool was developed to create LV detailed demand profiles that include not only the active and reactive power demand, but their electrical characteristics as well. The methodology uses a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to generate residential LV demand profiles taking into account the user activity and behaviour to represent UK population. An appliance database has also been created which corresponds to the UK residential appliance mixture in order to calculate more accurately the power demand. The main advantages of the approach presented here are the flexibility in altering the type and number of the appliances that populate a household and how easily it can be adapted to a different population, location and climate. The tool is used to investigate the impact of scenarios that simulate future load replacement and the network behaviour under certain methods of demand control, implementation of DSM and control of voltage on the secondary of the LV transformer. The algorithm that was developed to apply the DSM actions on the power demand focused on the management of individual loads. The drivers used in this approach were the financial and environmental benefit of customers and the increase in the quality of the network operation. The control of the voltage as a method for power reduction takes into account the voltage dependence of the demand. The primary target is to quantify the benefits of this strategy either in combination with DSM for higher power reduction during the peak hours or on the current network as a quicker, easier and less expensive alternative to DSM. The study shows that there is a significant power reduction in both cases which is dependent on the time of day and not constant as expected from the literature. The results show that there are significant differences between current and future load demand characteristics that would be very difficult to acquire without the modelling technique presented. The alternative solution would require extensive local load and network modifications and a long period of expensive tests and measurements in the field.