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dc.contributor.advisorMeehan, Richarden
dc.contributor.advisorHarrison, Daviden
dc.contributor.authorOttaviano, Raffaeleen
dc.date.accessioned2016-11-10T11:09:22Z
dc.date.available2016-11-10T11:09:22Z
dc.date.issued2014-07-05
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/17869
dc.description.abstractMammalian DNA methylathion is a chemical reaction catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) and involves the addition of a methyl group from the methyl donor SAM to the carbon 5 position of cytosine (C) in a CpG dinucleotide. Specifically, DNA methylation is essential for normal development and is involved in numerous key mechanisms such as genomic imprinting, X-chromosome inactivation, suppression of repetitive elements and may be involved in the regulation of single-copy gene expression. In the human genome the majority of CpGs are methylated whereas regions with high density of CpG sites, termed CpG islands and often co-localized within gene promoters, are typically free of this mark. Recently, a new modified cytosine, 5-hydroxymhetylcytosine (5-hmC), was identified and found at significant levels in mouse brain and both mouse and human embryonic stem (ES) cells. The conversion of 5-mC to 5-hmC is catalyzed by the ten-eleven translocation (TET) proteins of the 2-oxoglutarate (2OG)-and Fe(II)-dependent oxygenase superfamily. Many studies were conducted since the identification of 5-hmC and significant levels of 5-mC hydroxylation were found in many other mouse and human tissues. Importantly, many of the techniques used for 5-mC detection, such as bisulphite sequencing and methyl-sensitive restriction digestion, are incapable of distinguishing between 5mC and 5hmC implying the necessity not only to develop techniques specific for 5-hmC characterization but also reevaluation of previously published 5mC data. The biological function of 5-hmC is unknown however many recent studies have suggested a role for 5-hmC as an intermediate of either passive or active demethylation. The majority of studies of 5- hmC and TETs have used mouse ES cells as model system. Therefore, very little is known about 5-hmC patterns and TET expression within and between normal tissues. During my PhD, I used the recently developed 5-hmC-specific antibody for tiling microarrays and 5hmC-qPCR to examine both global 5hmC content and locus-specific patterns of 5hmC in several normal human tissues and breast cancer. I found that global 5-hmC content is highly variable between tissues compared to global 5-mC content. Moreover, TETs genes are highly expressed in most of tissues tested. Importantly, both global 5-hmC content and TETs genes are rapidly and significantly reduced as consequence of adaptation of cells from normal human tissue to cell culture. Using the 5hmC-specific antibody for tiling microarrays and 5-hmC-qPCR to profile locus-specific patterns of 5hmC, I found that 5-hmC patterns are tissue-specific in human samples. In addition, comparing array data to RNA-seq data, 5- hmC was found to co-localize at gene bodies of active genes. Moreover, despite the global 5-hmC reduction in cell lines, 5-hmC content remains enriched in some specific loci. In summary, my results show that tissue type is a major modifier of both global and locus-specific 5hmC at genes in normal human tissues. Furthermore, I also show that both TET gene expression and 5hmC content are significantly reduced and 5-hmC profiles reprogrammed during the passage from tissues to cell culture.en
dc.contributor.sponsorotheren
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.hasversionNestor, C. E., R. Ottaviano, J. Reddington, D. Sproul, D. Reinhardt, D. Dunican, E. Katz, J. M. Dixon, D. J. Harrison and R. R. Meehan (2012). "Tissue type is a major modifier of the 5-hydroxymethylcytosine content of human genes." Genome Res 22(3): 467- 477.en
dc.subject5-hydroxymhetylcytosineen
dc.subject5-hmCen
dc.subjectembryonic stem cellsen
dc.subjectTET expressionen
dc.subjectTETs genesen
dc.titleFunctional analysis of 5-hydroxymethylcytosineen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen
dc.rights.embargodate2100-12-31
dcterms.accessRightsRestricted Accessen


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