Caring with integrity: developing the conceptual underpinning of relationship-centred palliative dementia care in care homes
Watson, Julie Elizabeth
People with advanced dementia often struggle to maintain relationships and can ultimately experience social death before their physical death. Social death occurs when a person is no longer treated as an active agent in their relationships. Relationship-centred care acknowledges the relational nature of care-giving and care-receiving, validating the support needs of both care-givers, and the person receiving care. In the context of care-giving and care-receiving, a person with advanced dementia can become viewed as a passive recipient of care. In the context of caring for people with advanced dementia, more needs to be understood about how caring relationships can be sustained until the end of life in a way which challenges the social death of people with advanced dementia, and supports carers. Understandings of, and assumptions about, the effect of dementia on personhood directly affect the way people with dementia are perceived by others, the quality of their relationships, the quality of their care and the quality of their life. Dementia is often associated with the loss of the person. Kitwood (1997) has been highly influential within dementia care in challenging the loss of personhood, and reconsidering the grounds of personhood, emphasising relationships over cognition. Kitwood’s often cited definition of personhood is: ‘a standing or status bestowed on one human being, by another, in the context of relationship’ (Kitwood 1997 p8). Kontos (2004) however, critiques this social interactionist view of personhood, suggesting it potentially relegates the ‘body’ to a symbolic position rather than guaranteeing personhood. Her work examines the way that personhood is embodied, and how this persists when a person has advanced dementia. She suggests that attention to the embodied aspects of personhood could act as an important counter to the social death of people with advanced dementia, increasing the scope and opportunities for interpersonal relationships, and improved quality of care and quality of life. Zeiler (2013) and Jenkins (2013) develop this theory further, describing intercorporeal personhood springing forth through, and in, interaction, enabling individuals who cannot express themselves without support to do so in interactions. The principle aim of this doctoral research is to examine the care-giving/care-receiving relationship, in palliative dementia care, through the theoretical lenses described above. The research took place in a care home called ‘Primrose Hill’ (a pseudonym): a specialist dementia care home (without nursing), with an increasingly frail population with multiple co-morbidities. Fifteen residents died during the 10 months of the study. The research employed an ethnographic approach, using participant observation alongside interviews and group discussions with staff. Attention was given to how people with dementia responded to care and how they were positioned within the caring relationship; were they seen as passive recipients of care or as active agents, objects or subjects? The approach was appreciative in intent, based on the assumption that care home staff, and people with dementia who live in care homes, through their experience of the human encounter, have important things to teach families, and others working in dementia care, including policy makers and care regulators. When articulated and shared, their experiences can challenge the stereotype of dementia as a ‘death that leaves the body behind’. The empirical analysis revealed three keys facets which shape the caring relationship: body work (direct hands-on bodily care); recognising and supporting selfhood; witnessing and responding to suffering. These three facets of palliative dementia care are examined and reveal the way that people with dementia, even in the advanced stages, continue to experience and respond to the world, and those around them, until they die. This is used to develop the conceptual underpinning of relationship-centred palliative dementia care. The Senses Framework (Nolan et al 2006), which sets out the conditions required for relationship-centred care to occur, is expanded to incorporate embodied selfhood and intercorporeal personhood. The research concludes by arguing, using Ethic of Care theory as an interpretive framework, that an expanded understanding of personhood that includes the ‘body’ is vital, not only at the frontline, but also at a political and societal level, if care is to have integrity.