Impaired reinforcement learning and Bayesian inference in psychiatric disorders: from maladaptive decision making to psychosis in schizophrenia
Computational modelling has been gaining an increasing amount of support from the neuroscience community as a tool to assay cognition and computational processes in the brain. Lately, scientists have started to apply computational methods from neuroscience to the study of psychiatry to gain further insight into the mechanisms leading to mental disorders. In fact, only recently has psychiatry started to move away from categorising illnesses using behavioural symptoms in an attempt for a more biologically driven diagnosis. To date, several neurobiological anomalies have been found in schizophrenia and led to a multitude of conceptual framework attempting to link the biology to the patients’ symptoms. Computational modelling can be applied to formalise these conceptual frameworks in an effort to test the validity or likelihood of each hypothesis. Recently, a novel conceptual model has been proposed to describe how positive symptoms (delusions, hallucinations and thought disorder) and cognitive symptoms (poor decision-making, i.e. “executive functioning”) might arise in schizophrenia. This framework however, has not been tested experimentally or against computational models. The focus of this thesis was to use a combination of behavioural experiments and computational models to independently assess the validity of each component that make up this framework. The first study of this thesis focused on the computational analysis of a disrupted prediction-error signalling and its implications for decision-making performances in complex tasks. Briefly, we used a reinforcement-learning model of a gambling task in rodents and disrupted the prediction-error signal known to be critical for learning. We found that this disruption can account for poor performances in decision-making due to an incorrect acquisition of the model of the world. This study illustrates how disruptions in prediction-error signalling (known to be present in schizophrenia) can lead to the acquisition of an incorrect world model which can lead to poor executive functioning or false beliefs (delusions) as seen in patients. The second study presented in this thesis addressed spatial working memory performances in chronic schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, first episode psychosis and family relatives of DISC1 translocation carriers. We build a probabilistic inference model to solve the working memory task optimally and then implemented various alterations of this model to test commonly debated hypotheses of cognitive deficiency in schizophrenia. Our goal was to find which of these hypotheses accounts best for the poor performance observed in patients. We found that while the performance at the task was significantly different for most patients groups in comparison to controls, this effect disappeared after controlling for IQ in one group. The models were nonetheless fitted to the experimental data and suggest that working memory maintenance is most likely to account for the poor performances observed in patients. We propose that the maintenance of information in working memory might have indirect implications for measures of general cognitive performance, as these rely on a correct filtering of information against distractions and cortical noise. Finally the third study presented in this thesis assessed the performance of medicated chronic schizophrenia patients in a statistical learning task of visual stimuli and measured how the acquired statistics influenced their perception. We find that patient with chronic schizophrenia appear to be unimpaired at statistical learning of visual stimuli. The acquired statistics however appear to induce less expectation-driven ‘hallucinations’ of the stimuli in the patients group than in controls. We find that this is in line with previous literature showing that patients are less susceptible to expectation-driven illusions than controls. This study highlights however the idea that perceptual processes during sensory integration diverge from this of healthy controls. In conclusion, this thesis suggests that impairments in reinforcement learning and Bayesian inference appear to be able to account for the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenia, but that further work is required to merge these findings. Specifically, while our studies addressed individual components such as associative learning, working memory, implicit learning & perceptual inference, we cannot conclude that deficits of reinforcement learning and Bayesian inference can collectively account for symptoms in schizophrenia. We argue however that the studies presented in this thesis provided evidence that impairments of reinforcement learning and Bayesian inference are compatible with the emergence of positive and cognitive symptoms in schizophrenia.
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