|dc.contributor.advisor||Ward Thompson, Catharine||
|dc.contributor.author||Stanton, Caroline Mary||
|dc.description.abstract||Perception of scale is important to our activity within a space and to our experience of a
landscape. This presents a problem if people cannot predict or convey the scale effects of
large structures proposed in a landscape, as has been the case for recent wind turbine
proposals in Scotland. To address this problem, this research explored how people
perceive scale and scale effects in a landscape. It took wind turbines as an example
structure and analysed how different scales of windfarm create different scale effects in
different landscapes, as well as how to best assess and communicate these effects.
The research applied three methods to address the research questions: Landscape and
Visual Impact Assessment (LVIA), which is a standard, structured process applied by
professional landscape architects; experiential landscape assessment, which included semi-structured
interviews with local people in addition to site assessment; and public attitude
and preference study, which included Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint analysis (ACBC).
These different methods allowed the research questions to be explored in different ways,
while overlapping in some aspects and providing triangulation.
The research findings revealed that our perception of scale and scale effects in a landscape
is influenced by numerous attributes and depends on how these are experienced together.
Building upon the theoretical background, an important difference between visual scale
and spatial scale was highlighted, as well as alternative ways in which scale references are
made. Throughout the research, the need for clear communication was emphasised and
the findings included identifying the specific words that people use to describe scale effects
in the most discriminating way.
This research supported other studies in finding that consultation with local people
(professionals and the public) was vital to understand in sufficient depth how a landscape
was perceived, experienced and valued. In addition, the innovative development of
Conjoint Analysis demonstrated how this method can reveal how people judge the relative
importance of different attributes that influence landscape and visual effects and, by doing
so, offer new possibilities as a tool in landscape research.
Building upon the general findings concerning scale, specific findings regarding the scale
effects of windfarms included: greater influence of the proximity of a windfarm than size or
numbers of wind turbines; greater importance for being in private and/or fixed locations
that offer a sense of refuge compared to public locations and/or when moving; the
importance of collective effects perceived and experienced by a community; the
importance of perceived spatial separation between a viewer and a windfarm (affecting
sensitivity to scale effects within open settings); and differences in how people judge the
importance of horizontal scale effects compared to vertical scale effects.
The research findings contribute to the knowledge and understanding of people’s
perception of scale and scale effects in a landscape and they counter some common
assumptions and current practice in landscape architecture. They can be applied in practice
and policy to help assess scale effects, convey more clearly to people the type of scale
effects and how these will affect them, and minimise the adverse scale effects of windfarms
through siting and design. The thesis also identifies how to build upon these findings in the
future, including recommendations for additional research, new approaches to assessment
(including the use of prompt lists) and thresholds for acceptability of scale effects.||en
|dc.publisher||The University of Edinburgh||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Stanton, C. (1993) The visual impact of windfarms in the United Kingdom, Denmark and the Netherlands. Report for Landscape Institute Travel Award 1993. London, The Landscape Institute.||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Stanton, C. (1996) The landscape impact and visual design of windfarms. Edinburgh, Edinburgh College of Art.||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Stanton, C. (2012) The backclothing of wind turbines in the Scottish landscape: A report to the Cairngorms National Park Authority [Internet]. Available from: <http://cairngorms.co.uk/uploads/documents/Learn/Backclothing_of_wind_turbines_- _final_report_-_17_Sept_2012.pdf> [Accessed 27 July 2015].||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||Stanton, C. (2012) Delabole windfarm: growing up over time. In: Finlay, A. Skying: art, landscape and renewable energy [Internet blog]. Available from: <http://skyingblog. blogspot.co.uk/2011/03/delabole-windfarm-growing-up-over-time.html> [Accessed 22 June 2012].||en
|dc.subject||perception of scale||en
|dc.subject||Adaptive Choice-Based Conjoint analysis||en
|dc.title||Perception of scale and scale effects in the landscape, with specific reference to wind turbines in Scotland||en
|dc.type||Thesis or Dissertation||en
|dc.type.qualificationname||PhD Doctor of Philosophy||en