Efficient transmission design for machine type communications in future wireless communication systems
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With a wide range of potential applications, the machine type communication (MTC) is gaining a tremendous interest among mobile network operators, system designers, MTC specialist companies, and research institutes. The idea of having electronic devices and systems automatically connected to each other without human intervention is one of the most significant objectives for future wireless communications. Low data rate transmission and the requirement for low energy consumption are two typical characteristics for MTC applications. In terms of supporting low cots MTC devices, industrial standards will be more efficient if designers can re-use many features of existing radio access technologies. This will yield a cost effective solution to support MTC in future communication systems. This thesis investigates efficient MTC waveform and receiver designs for superior signal transmission quality with low operational costs. In terms of the downlink receiver design, this thesis proposes a novel virtual carrier (VC) receiver system for MTC receivers, which aims to reduce the maximum bandwidth to improve the data processing efficiency and cost-efficiency by using analogue filters to extract only sub-carriers of interest. For the VC receiver systems, we thus reduce the sampling rate in order to reduce the number of subsequent processing operations, which significantly reduces the analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) cost and power consumption while providing high signal to interference noise ratio (SINR) and low bit to error rate (BER) to support low data rate MTC devices. Our theoretical equations account for the interference effect of aliasing on the sub-carrier location, and this helps the system designer to evaluate what kind of filters and receiver sampling rate can be used to balance the energy cost and detection performance. In terms of the uplink waveform design, considering the enhanced number of MTC devices in the future communication systems, i.e. the fifth generation (5G) communications, the same tight synchronisation as used in today appears not to be cost-effective or even possible. Synchronisation signals, which aim to provide a perfect time or frequency synchronisation in the current fourth generation (4G) communication systems (known as the long-term evolution, LTE), is much more costly for low data rate MTC transmissions. The system bandwidth will be significantly reduced if a base station tries to synchronise all received signals among hundreds or thousands MTC devices in one transmission time period. In terms of relaxing the synchronisation requirements, this thesis compares and analyses the side-lobe reduction performance for several candidate multi-carrier waveforms to avoid these problems. We also propose the infinite impulse response universal filtered multi-carrier (UFMC) system and the overlap and add UFMC system, which significantly reduce the processing complexity compared with the state of the art UFMC techniques. This thesis derives closed-form expressions for the interference caused by time offsets between adjacent unsynchronised MTC users. Our analytical equations can be used in both simple and complex time-offset transmission scenarios, and enable the system designer to evaluate the SINR, the theoretical Shannon capacity and the BER performance.