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dc.contributor.authorHeal, Mathew Ren
dc.contributor.authorHarrison, Mark A Jen
dc.contributor.authorCape, J Neilen
dc.date.accessioned2008-10-03T11:41:18Z
dc.date.available2008-10-03T11:41:18Z
dc.date.issued2007
dc.identifier.citationHeal, M.R., Harrison, M.A.J. and Cape, J.N. (2007) Aqueous phase nitration of phenol by N2O5 and ClNO2, Atmos. Environ. 41, 3515-3520.
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/2517
dc.description.abstractNitrophenols are present in the atmospheric gas phase and in cloud and rainwater. Their formation via aqueous-phase reactions of phenol with the nitronium ion, NO2+, arising from N2O5 and ClNO2 partitioning into the aqueous phase, has been proposed but not verified experimentally. Here we demonstrate for the first time that gaseous N2O5 and ClNO2 partitioning into dilute aqueous solutions of phenol yields 2- and 4-nitrophenol (and 4-nitrosophenol), but no dinitrophenol isomers. The rate of nitration does not vary significantly between 5 and 20 degrees C, presumably because of opposing temperature dependences in Henry’s law partitioning and reaction rate coefficients. The rate coefficient for reaction of NO2+ with phenol could not be directly quantified but is evidently large enough for this reaction to compete effectively with the reaction between NO2+ and water and to provide a feasible route to nitrophenol production in the atmosphere.en
dc.contributor.sponsorNatural Environment Research Council (NERC)en
dc.contributor.sponsorEngineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)en
dc.format.extent114336 bytesen
dc.format.mimetypeapplication/pdfen
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherElsevieren
dc.subjectChemistryen
dc.subjectEnvironmental Chemistryen
dc.subjectheterogeneous atmospheric chemistryen
dc.subjectnitronium ionen
dc.titleAqueous phase nitration of phenol by N2O5 and ClNO2en
dc.typeArticleen


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