|dc.description.abstract||There is a drive to transform the electricity industry in the UK from one based largely on fossil
fuels to one based on low or zero carbon sources. The challenge of this transition, enabling a
secure and sustainable electricity industry at an acceptable cost to consumers, has been dubbed
the Energy Trilemma. Grid-connected electrical energy storage presents a potential solution to
this challenge. However, the benefits of storage are split across different sectors of the
electricity industry and there are a number of regulatory barriers preventing access to revenue
streams. One accessible revenue stream is energy trading or price arbitrage. In current market
conditions, arbitrage cannot provide sufficient revenue for electricity storage to cover its
capital costs; however, some studies have suggested that with increased penetration of
intermittent renewable power, electricity price volatility will increase enabling storage to
become commercially viable through price arbitrage alone.
This thesis examines the hypothesis that: Increased wind penetration leads to increased
commercial opportunities for energy storage through price arbitrage. A linear programme is
used to define the optimum operating strategy for a storage device, subject to the constraints
of maximum storage capacity, charging and discharging rates, conversion efficiency and self-discharge.
Initially, historic electricity prices from the British electricity market are used to
investigate the value of storage with a low penetration of intermittent wind power. The results
show that revenue is dependent on storage characteristics, with the performance of different
technologies varying substantially. Furthermore, revenue is highly dependent on changes in
market structure and fuel price variations from one year to the next.
The thesis describes the development of a fundamental electricity price model based on the
stacked merit order dispatch of thermal generation bidding to produce electricity in a
competitive market centred around marginal generation costs. For peaking plant, an
exponential uplift in price is applied to represent scarcity of supply. The implications of
increasing wind power output are examined using projections of the location and capacity of
future wind farms and spatially distributed hind cast wind speed data generated from a
mesoscale atmospheric model.
The analysis highlights that despite increased value being placed on storage in an energy
system with a high penetration of wind power, opportunities for arbitrage are, in fact, reduced.
This is a result of an oversupply of electricity on windy days suppressing peak electricity prices
and reducing the daily price spread, which arbitrage exploits.||en
|dc.contributor.sponsor||Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC)||en
|dc.publisher||The University of Edinburgh||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||A. Dunbar, F. Tagliaferri, I. M. Viola and G. P. Harrison, “The implications of price forecast accuracy on the optimality of storage revenue,” in IET 3rd Renewable Power Generation Conference, Naples, 2014.||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||A. Dunbar, L. C. Cradden, A. R. Wallace and G. P. Harrison, “Impact of wind power on abritrage revenue for electricity storage,” IET Generation, Transmission & Distribution, doi:10.1049/iet-gtd.2015.0139, 2015.||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||A. Dunbar, A. R. Wallace and G. P. Harrison, “Storage characteristics rewarded by arbitrage and the implications of offshore wind power,” in Offshore Energy and Energy Storage Symposium, Edinburgh, 1st-3rd July 2015.||en
|dc.relation.hasversion||. Dunbar, A. R. Wallace, G. P. Harrison, “Energy storage and wind power: Sensitivity of revenue to future market uncertainties”, journal paper published in IET Renewable Power Generation Special Issue: Offshore Energy Storage, 2016||en
|dc.title||Value of electrical energy storage: a comparison between commercial and system level benefits||en
|dc.type||Thesis or Dissertation||en
|dc.type.qualificationname||PhD Doctor of Philosophy||en