The fate of carbon tetrachloride and hexachloroethane was
studied in sheep, rabbits, cockerels, ducks and liver flukes.
A new method was described for detection and estimation of
hexachloroethane and its metabolites pentachloroethane and
tetrachloroethylene in biological extracts using a multicolumn gas-liquid chromatographic technique. Pentachloroethane
had not prieviously been reported as a metabolite of hexachloroethane and was itself metabolised to tetrachloroethylene.
A new metabolite of carbon tetrachloride, hexachloroethane,
was described and may have arisen by dimerisation of free
trichloromethyl radicals. Detection of the dimer of such
radicals may provide evidence for the formation of trichloro¬
methyl radicals from carbon tetrachloride ; a current
hypothesis suggests that the toxicity of the drug is due to
liberation of these radicals in vivo.
The biliary excretion of carbon tetrachloride and hexachloroethane in several species including sheep was studied.
The effect of carbon tetrachloride, hexachloroethane, penta¬
chloroethane, tetrachloroathylene, tetrachlorodifluoroethanes
and bistrichloromethylbenzene on plasma enzyme activities in
sheep was studied. Carbon tetrachloride and hexachloroethane
were hepatotoxic in sheep, but probably not in cockerels and
ducks. Hepatotoxicity due to hexachloroethane had not priev¬
iously been described and was detected by elevation of plasma
enzyme activity and reduced bromsulphthalein dye transfer rates.
The hepatotoxicity of carbon tetrachloride for sheep and
tolerance of cockerels and ducks to the drug was discussed.
The in-vitro toxicity on liver flukes of various substances
was studied. Liver flukes metabolised carbon tetrachloride
and hexachloroethane in vitro. Carbon tetrachloride, carbon
tetrachloride treated liver lipid and a carbon tetrachloridemethyl oleate complex were toxic to liver flukes in vitro, in
the presence of sheep bile.
The fasciocidal action of carbon tetrachloride was discussed
and related to the toxicity of the drug in mammals.