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dc.contributor.authorBooth, Mary Elizabethen
dc.date.accessioned2018-05-14T10:15:13Z
dc.date.available2018-05-14T10:15:13Z
dc.date.issued1998en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/29926
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractThe purpose of this study was to determine the daily energy requirements of ponies native to the U.K., living on upland areas. This information can be used to improve the management of ponies kept under these conditions.en
dc.description.abstractThe objectives of this thesis were to i) determine the effects of speed and terrain on the energy costs of ponies when walking, ii) measure seasonal differences in the hair coat, iii) estimate the effect of a wet winter coat on metabolic rate, iv) determine the proportion of a day spent by free-living ponies in feeding, walking, standing and lying, v) estimate the total distance moved daily by these ponies, and vi) describe the relationship between weather conditions and the behaviour and location of ponies.en
dc.description.abstractIn the first study, the energy costs of walking were measured in four Shetland and two Exmoor ponies by using open-circuit, indirect calorimetry. The energy cost of activity, above that for standing, was independent of speed and averaged 1.02 J/kg liveweight/m travelled. An Oxylog, a portable breath-by-breath oxygen analyser, was used to determine effects of terrrain on the energy cost of walking using five Shetland ponies. The mean (s.e.) energy expenditures (J/kg/m) were:- grass 1.7 (0.07); concrete 2.9 (0.15); 12 cm of mud 5.9 (0.21); uphill (+5.8°) 5.5 (0.31); downhill (-5.8°) 3.3 (0.23) J/kg/m.en
dc.description.abstractIn the second study, physical parameters of the winter and summer hair coats of six Shetland ponies were compared. Also, metabolic rate was monitored as a means of assessing the effect of wetting ponies in winter coat. Coat density in the winter 2 • 2 averaged 96.2 (s.e. 8.01) mg/cm , 3.24 times the summer value of 29.5 (3.37) mg/cm . Fibre diameter differed significantly between ponies within season. For some ponies there were seasonal changes in fibre diameter. The number of fibres/cm" did not differ significantly between seasons. Metabolic rate (determined by open-circuit, indirect calorimetry) and body temperature were unaffected by wetting (to the skin) the dorsal surface of Shetland ponies in winter coat. However, there were decreases in skin temperature over the wetted area which suggested local vasoconstrictionen
dc.description.abstractIn the third study, six Exmoor pony mares, kept in an enclosed area of fell in Cumbria, were observed in late winter (W) when they were pregnant, and in summer (S) when they were lactating. There were significant seasonal differences in the time spent feeding 17.2 h (W), 13.5 h (S); walking 0.5 h (W), 1.2 h (S); and standing 4.6 h (W), 6.2 h (S); but not in lying 1.3 h (W & S). The total distance moved by the mares in 24 h; 3.1 - 5.7 km (W) and 3.7 - 4.9 km (S), was calculated as the sum of the distances moved whilst grazing and walking. In winter, ponies preferentially grazed facing directly into or away from the wind at all wind speeds, and preferred to stand in areas where wind viii speed was reduced. In the summer, the same orientations to the wind became evident at wind speeds of 5 m/s. Ponies stood in the most exposed areas during the hottest parts of the day, but stood in sheltered areas at night. Grazing speed and bite rate were significantly greater (P<0.05) in the winter than in the summeren
dc.description.abstractThe results showed that the energy costs of activity (walking and grazing) were greater in winter than in summer. Therefore, seasonal adjustments in energy requirements are needed to allow for changes in activity as well as changes in heat loss. Recommendations are made regarding the management strategies for ponies kept outdoors.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2018 Block 18en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyAlready catalogueden
dc.titleFactors influencing the energy requirements of native ponies living outdoors in the United Kingdomen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen


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