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dc.contributor.authorThuranira, Christine Mwendwaen
dc.date.accessioned2018-05-14T10:16:48Z
dc.date.available2018-05-14T10:16:48Z
dc.date.issued2005
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/30029
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractThis thesis examined the internal and external factors influencing livestock keeping dynamics in a smallholder crop-livestock system in Busia District, western Kenya. The study aimed to gain an understanding of the factors that influence household decision-making on the allocation of household resources and how these impact on the ability to own and successfully look after livestock. Households in the sample were characterised in terms of their resources, socio-demographics and livelihood strategies. Livestock keeping dynamics were examined in terms of factors such as herd structures, production parameters, the ways in which households acquired and lost livestock and the characteristics of households entering and leaving livestock keeping. The importance of seasonality in the production system was also investigated. The study was undertaken in Funyula and Butula Divisions in Busia and was carried out by means of a two-year longitudinal survey. 175 households were interviewed at intervals of four months during the study. The surveys times were designed to coincide with the three main seasons found in the study area. Both quantitative and qualitative data collection methods were employed in the form of questionnaires and Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) exercises.en
dc.description.abstractBusia has a smallholder crop-livestock production system with most households relying on crops as their main livelihood strategy and livestock being kept as a means of income diversification. The crop and livestock enterprises do not show a high level of integration. The livestock enterprise shows very low inputs and outputs with a mean total annual output equivalent to US$ 33.69 per household and a mean total annual input equivalent to US$ 5.27 per household. Milk produced and draught power represented less than 1% of total cash outputs. Sales of live animals comprised the main component of livestock outputs with veterinary drugs and services accounting for the highest proportion (43%) of inputs into the livestock enterprise.en
dc.description.abstractThe majority of animals entering livestock holdings were born into the holdings and there was only a 3% increase in the number of livestock keeping households over 2 years. Households purchasing animals generally bought the same species as they had sold. This suggests that there are minimal changes occurring in the livestock keeping status quo. This study therefore showed little evidence of the "livestock ladder" (Perry et al., 2002), which holds that there is a hierarchy in livestock keeping that reflects experience and the potential for households to move into different types of livestock keeping.en
dc.description.abstractThe proportion of animals lost through death ranged from 27% to 33% among the all livestock species and the majority of these deaths were disease related. Diseases and a shortage of veterinary services were cited by farmers as the principle constraints to livestock keeping. A quarter of cattle sales were directly attributed to disease and between 5% and 7% of cattle and small ruminants were sold because they were "unproductive", a factor that can often be linked to the presence of disease. Animal deaths due to disease were estimated to cost individual households Ksh. 2103 (US$ 27.15) annually, approximately 81% of the total value of livestock outputs per household.en
dc.description.abstractAnalyses of seasonal variations in livelihood activities did not show the clear seasonal patterns expected. However, important observations were made in relation to livestock disease episodes and the use of veterinary services. Livestock disease episodes were higher during the long rains than the dry season, but more money was spent during the dry season when numbers of disease episodes were low and more households also used professional veterinary services during this season (%2 =81.47, P< 0.001). In both study years, a higher proportion of households treated animals themselves during the rainy seasons (z = -2.4, P=0.02; z = -5.03, PcO.OOl).en
dc.description.abstractExisting veterinary services networks are not effective in reaching smallholder farmers therefore more linkages need to be established. Animal health practitioners and their clients could benefit greatly from greater support in terms of aspects such as training, credit and membership to professional groups (Holden, 1997; Kiniiya and Mukhebi, 2002). The public sector is unlikely to provide increased extension or animal health services but policy intervention could support the formation of farmer organisations that could co-ordinate this. The provision of credit to farmers would help enable farmers make the initial investment in livestock and in the appropriate management of their animals. Further research and changes to government policy are needed to facilitate this.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2018 Block 18en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyAlready catalogueden
dc.titleSocio-economic factors influencing livestock keeping dynamics in a smallholder crop-livestock system in western Kenyaen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen


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