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dc.contributor.authorSanders, Susan J.en
dc.date.accessioned2018-05-22T12:47:47Z
dc.date.available2018-05-22T12:47:47Z
dc.date.issued2003en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/30717
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractThe late Bronze Age tablets from Ugarit in North-West Syria contain many religious texts which feature Baal, one of the main gods in the Ugaritic pantheon, and several studies have been written about him. Since the last major work is now thirty years old, it is valid to re-examine the specifically Ugaritic material and consider the theology of Baal, focusing on the religious ideas behind the textsen
dc.description.abstractThe Review of Literature groups authors' works into those who support the Seasonal Pattern interpretation of the tablets and those who have challenged that opinion. Since the place of fertility in Baal's character is a major feature of the putative Seasonal Pattern, this is examined after the Review, followed by a study of Baal's death, another integral part of the Seasonal position. Neither of these phenomena substantiates the traditional Seasonal understanding of Baal, although his role as provider of rain and thunder is supported by the religious texts. Fertility and death are no longer the main features of Baal's theology and so other aspects of him are examined.en
dc.description.abstractHis role as a warrior is appraised and found to be important but ambiguous, while his endeavour to retain his kingship is found to be a reflection of his important connection to the royal culture within Ugarit. The cult of Baal is reassessed: although the ritual texts remain difficult to interpret, there is presently no evidence of temple prostitution or ritual marriage previously ascribed to the worship of Baal. The iconography of Baal is briefly examined and the material from Ugarit is shown to support the aspects of Baal that are found to be most prominent in the texts, that is his role in weather, war and royal ideology. Finally, the titles of Baal are discussed and their variety confirms the importance of Baal at Ugarit. The descriptions of Baal in the titles support his activity in war, royal ideology, his role in cosmic order and particularly the meteorological theophany of rain and thunder. This indicates a balanced theology between his different roles, but we cannot argue for the importance or precedence of any one of these.en
dc.description.abstractThe previous view of Baal was over-influenced by a theoretical vision of religion. As a deity in Ugarit Baal reflected the concerns of his worshippers and although his role in the royal cult and its ideology should not be underestimated, his meteorological significance is affirmed by his titles and by incidents within the Baal Cycle. Altogether Baal's theology is balanced and complex and this dissertation discusses each aspect of his character in order to provide a full and holistic view of him as expressed through the LBA Ugaritic texts.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2018 Block 19en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyAlready catalogueden
dc.titleTowards a theology of Baal: revisiting the interpretation of the Ugaritic Textsen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen


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