I. The habit of growth of the deodar (Cedrus
Deodara, Loudon) alters entirely between
the two extreme conditions of monsoon
rainfall in the outer hills and winter
snowfall as the only precipitation of
the Tibetan border. In the outer hills
it keeps to the best drained spurs and
ridges, while in the inner hills it
seeks the gentler slopes and cooler aspects which retain their snow-beds
longest into the spring.
II. The plant associates of the deodar alter
completely between these two extremes,
except for the blue pine (Pinus excelsa,:
Wall.) which accompanies the deodar
throughout and retreats uphill toward
the snow -beds of the inner ranges in
a siìilar manner.
III. The deodar's capacity as a timber producer
alters markedly with climatic changes,
and these alterations have now been correlated with the changes in its plant
IV. For practical use in the field, the deodar
itself is the best indication of the
quality class of any existing crop, and
it is proposed to employ vegetation lists;
only in the determination of the site
quality class, where the existing crop
is an abnormal one. The plants which
indicate optimum conditions for deodar
may be summarised as follows:-
Moist Zone (deodar in mixed crops
with spruce and blue pine)
Adiantum Capillus -Veneris, Linn and
Ainsliaea aptera, DO.
Arundinaria falcata, Nees.
Asparagus filicinus, Buch -Ham.
Fragaria yesca, Linn.
Primula. denticulata, Sm.
Smilax parvifolia, Gall. and vaginata,
Spiraea bella, Sims. and vestita,ffall.
Urtica dioica, Linn.
Viola Patrinii, Ging. and serpens,Wall.
Wulfenia Amherstiana, Benth
Dry and Arid Zones (deodar in pure
Artemisia vestita, Wall.
Asparagus gracilis, Royle.
Astragalus chlorostachys, Lindl.
Atropa Belladonna, Linn.
Bupleurum Candolliï, Wall. and
Desmodium tiliaefolium, G.Don.
Fragaria yesca, Linn.
Indigofera Gerardiana, Wall.
Lilium polyphyllum, D.Don.
Philadeiphus tomentosus, Wall.
Polygonatum multiflorum, All. and
Polygonum affine, D.Don and molle,
Thalictrum foliolosum, DC,, javanicum,
Blume., and minus, Linn.
Viola Patrinii, Ging. and serpens,
V. In employing the vegetation lists presented
in this paper, the ground flora in any
given deodar crop or planting area should
be studied and compared with the listed
normal for the area, according to its
position in the moist, dry, or arid zone,
and the pecularities of the common
plants should be referred to in the
analysis (CHAPTER VIII)
VI. As the ground flora of deodar crops with a
complete canopy consists largely of
herbs, it follows that the whole of the
ground cover, including herbs, ferns,
and grasses as well as shrubs, should
be studied for guidance in sylvicultural work.
VII. Experience has shown that the drier types
of deodar forest require a slower and
more gradual method of regeneration
than the orthodox Shelterwood System,
and that marking for felling must be
governed largely by the necessity for
providing side shade against the
hottest sun until young crops are established. , study of the component
plants of the ground cover will give
useful indications as to the amount
to which any given crop should be