My studies on bovine mycoplasnas fall under three
A. ANGPLASMA MYQPI.DES VAR. MCOIDES AND CONTÁ2IOUS BOVINE
An investigation was undertaken to determine whether
the allergic reaction could be developed as a useful diagnostic test for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Using
antigens obtained from M. mycoides var. n coides two types
of reaction were observed, an immediate reaction associated
with lipopolysaccharide material and a delayed reaction
associated with protein. It was impossible to separate the
protein completely from the lipopolysaccharide, which
elicited some non-specific reactions, and the test was
A comparison of various serological tests employed in
contagious bovine pleuropneumonia diagnosis revealed that
no single test was entirely satisfactory, but the complement fixation test was the best available. Growth inhibition of M. mycoides var. mycoides by serum was examined as
a diagnostic test and as a measure of immunity. Two tests
were evolved, one on solid medium and the other in liquid
medium, and both proved to be of potential value for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia diagnosis, but their value
in measuring immunity was not determined. Inhibition was
observed, to occur in the absence of agglutination and
heat-labile accessory factors.
The lipopolysaccharide from M. mycoides var. mycoides,
responsible for the immediate allergic reaction, was
shown to be serologically related to a galactan extracted
from normal bovine lung. This lipopolysaccharide was also
shown to be aritigenically related to polysaccharides from
a number of different sources including other microorganisms and this relationship was considered to be responsible for non-specific reactions discerned in diagnostic tests.
It was suggested that the serological relationship
between the lipopolysaccharide of M. Ayssides vay_t_mycoides
and the galactan from bovine lung might play a role in the
pathogenesis of contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. A preliminary examination of this percept was inconclusive, but
it was shown, fortuitously, that immunity could be transferred passively.
Electronmicroscopic examination of ItmmixleamaEl.
ycoides, treated with specific antiserum, revealed a capsule or slime layer round the organisms. This capsule is
probably composed of galactan.
A method devised for the production, testing and
transport of a modified Ti contagious bovine pleuropneumonia vaccine is described.
Chicken embryos, from hens previously inoculated with
M. mycoides var. mycoides, were immune to challenge with
this organism, suggesting that the chicken embryo might be
a suitable host for studying immunity to contagious bovine
B. MYCOPLASMAS WITH CALF NEUMONIA AND BOVINE
Material from pneumonic lungs cultured in special
media resulted in the isolation of two species of xaycoplasma hitherto unrecorded from lungs. One was a new
species of mycoplasma, subsequently named M. dispar, and
the other was T-mycoplasna. Mycoplasmas were isolated
from 75% of 65 pneumonic lungs examined; these comprised
T-mycoplasmas from 58.5% of lungs, M. dispar from 51% and
M. bovirhinis from 23%.
The pathogenicity of the T-mycoplasmas was tested by
inoculating cultures endobronchially into 3-week-old
calves. Gross pneumonic lesions were observed in 14 out of
the 16 calves at slaughter, compared with 2 out of 9 that
revealed lesions following inoculation of control materials
(P<0.01). Certain T-mycoplasmas also produced mastitis in
the mammary glands of cows when inoculated via the teat
canal. Strains both virulent and avirulent for the bovine
mammary gland could be isolated from cattle, but human,
canine and simian strains of T-mycoplasmas were avirulent.
Bovine T-mycoplasmas were shown to be serologically heterogeneous.
T-mycoplasmas, M. bovirhinis, Acholejlasma laidlawii
and an unidentifiable species of mycoplasma were isolated
from eyes of cattle suffering from keratoconjunctivitis.
C. MYCOPLASMATALES VIRUSES
Three distinct viruses have been isolated. All infect
A. laidlawii producing visible plaques on 'lawns' of this
organism. The first virus isolated, named Mycoplasmatales
virus - laidlawii 1 (MV-L1), is a small (16 x 90 nm.)
rod-shaped DNA containing virus. The second virus,
named MV-L2, is roughly spherical, apparently enveloped
and about 80 nm, in diameter (range 50-125 nm.). It
appears to contain DNA and is serologically distinct from
MV-Ll. The third virus (MV-L3), only recently isolated,
is polyhedral and uniform in size (about 54 nm, diameter)
and is serologically distinct from both MV-Li and MV-L2.
PUBLICATIONS IN SUPPORT OF CANDIDATURE:
A MYCOPLASMA MYCOIDES VAR. MYCOIDES AND CONTAGIOUS
1. GOURLAY, R. N. (1964). The allergic reaction in
contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Journal of
Esylpáratiae2211-22122x 74, 286-299. ||
2. & PALMER, R. F. (1965). Further studies
on the allergic reaction in contagious bovine
pleuropneumonia. Journal of Comparative Pathology 75, 89-95. ||
3. & SHIFRINE, M. (1965) . Comparison
between methods of antigen preparation and the use
of adjuvant in the delayed allergic skin reaction
in contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. Journal of
Comparative Pathology 75, 375-380. ||
4. SHIFRINE, M. & GOURLAY,. R. N. (1965). The immediate
type allergic skin reaction in contagious bovine
pleuropneumonia. Journal of Comparative Pathology
75, 381-385. ||
5. & (1967). Serological
relationships between Mycoplasma mycoides and other
bacteria. Annals of the New York Academy of
Science. 143, 311-324. ||
6. GOURLAY, R. N. (1935). Comparison between some diagnostic tests for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia.
Journal of Comparative Pathology 75, 97-109. ||
7. SHIFRINE M. & GOURLAY, R. N. (1967). Evaluation of
diagnostic tests for contagious bovine pleuropneumonia. ER112Iinafpizootic Diseases of
Africa 15, 7-10, ||
8. DOMERMUTH, C. H. & GOURLAY, R. N. (1967). A solid
medium test for measuring growth inhibition and
neutralisation of ypyARxçc2LdMcolasxes by immune
bovine serum. Journal of General Microbiology
47, 289-294. ||
9. GOURLAY, R. N. & DOMERMUTH, C. H. (1967). Growth
inhibition and 'neutralisation' of Mycoplasma
mycoides by immune bovine serum. Annals of the
New York Academ of Science 143, 325-336. ||
10. SHIFRINE, M. & GOURLAY, R. N. (1965). Serological
relationship between galactans from normal bovine
lung and Mycoplasma Nature, London
208, 498-499. ||
11. GOURLAY, R. N. & SHIFRINE, M. (1966). Antigenic
cross-reactions between the galactan from
plasmanasoides and polysaccharides from other
sources. Journal of Corn arative Patholoc 76,
12. & BROCKLESBY, D. W. (1967). Preliminary experiments with antigens of Theileria
páLya (Theiler, 1904). British Veterinary_lamIlL
123, 533-540. ||
13. & SHIFRINE, M. (1966). Passive transfer of immunity and formation of lung lesions
following intravenous inoculation of Mycoplasma nix,21.sisa and immune bovine serum. Bulletin of
Epiaslotic Diseases of Africa 14, 369-372. ||
14. GOURLAY, R. N. & THROWER, K. J. (1968). Morl,hology
of Llysgpjau_uarzlxcoides thread-phase growth.
Journal of General Microbiology 54, 155-159. ||
15. BROWN, R. D., GOURLAY, R. N. & MACLEOD, A. K. (1965).
The production of Ti broth culture contagious
bovine pleuropneumonia vaccine. Bulletin of
E izootic Diseases of Africa 13, 149-155. ||
16. GOURLAY, R. N. & MACLEOD, A. K. (1966). Fermentation
of glucose by Mys2212sma mycoides and its effect
on viability. Bulletin of E izootic Diseases of
Africa 14, 373-381. ||
17. & SHIFRINE, M. (1966). The use of
embryonated chicken eggs for the study of immunity to MYcoplasma Tycoides. Veterinary Record 78,
18. & (1968). The virulence
and viability of Mycoplasma mycoides strains in
chicken embryos from normal and immunised hens.
Research in Veterinary Science 9, 185-186. ||
B MYCOPLASMAS ASSOCIATED WITH CALF PNEUMONIA AND
19. GOURLAY, R. N. (1969). Isolation of a mycoplasma-like
organism from pneumonic calf lungs. Veterinary
Record 84, 229-230. ||
20. & LEACH, R. H. (1970). A new mycoplasma species isolated from pneumonic lungs of
calves (Mycoplasma dispar, Sp. Nov.) Journal of
Medical Microbioloq 3, 111-123. ||
21. (1968). The isolation of T-strains of
Mycoplasma from pneumonic calf lungs. Research
in Veterinar Science 9, 376-378. ||
22. & THOMAS, L. H. (1969). The isolation
of large colony and T-strain mycoplasmas from
cases of bovine kerato-conjunctivitis.
Veterinary Record 84, 416-417. ||
23. & MACKENZIE, A. & COOPER, J. E. (1970).
Studies of the microbiology and pathology of
pneumonic lungs of calves. Journal of comparatitive Pathology 80, 575-584. ||
24. & THOMAS, L. H. (1970). The experimental production of pneumonia in calves by the
endobronchial inoculation of T-mycoplasmas.
Journal of Com arative Patholoca 80, 585-594. ||
25. HOWARD, C. J. & BROWNLIE, J. (1972).
The production of mastitis in cows by the intramammary inoculation of T-mycoplasmas. Journal of
Hygiene, Cambridge 70, 511-521. ||
26. HOWARD, C. J. & GOURLAY, R. N. (1972). Serology of
bovine T-mycoplasmas. British Veterinary
Journal 128, XXXVII-XL. ||
27. ______, _______ & BROWNLIE, J. (1973).
The virulence of T-mycoplasmas, isolated from
various animal species, assayed by intramammary
inoculation in cattle. journal of Hygiene, Cambridge 71, 163-170. ||
C MYCOPLASMATALES VIRUSES:
28. GOURLAY, R. N. (1970). Isolation of a virus infecting a strain of MycopIasma laidlawii. Nature,
London 225, 1165. ||
29. , BRUCE, JUDY & GARWES , D. J. (1971).
Characterisation of Mycoplasmatales virus
laidlawii 1. Nature New Biolaay 229, 118-119. ||
30. (1972). Ultrastructural studies of
Mycoplasmatales viruses. MedicALILlIg.
and Immunology 157, 172, ||
31. BRUCE, J., GOURLAY R. N., HULL, R. & GARWES, D. J.
(1972). Ultrastructure of Mycoplasmatales
virus - laidlawii 1. Journal of
16, 215-221. ||
32. GOURLAY, R. N. & WYLD, SARA G. (1972). Some biological characteristics of Mycoplasmatales virus
laidlawii 1. Journal of General Virolgaz 14,
33. (1971). Mycoplasmatales virus - laidlawii 2, a new virus isolated from Acholeplasma laidlawii. Journal of General Virology
12, 65-67. ||
34. (1972). Isolation and characterisation
of mycoplasma viruses. In PathougaisilyssmlásmIla
Ciba Foundation Symposium. Amsterdam. ASP. 145-156. ||
35. 4.11 GARWES, D. J., BRUCF J. & WYLD, S. G.
(1973). Further studies on the morphology and
composition of Mycoplasmatales virus - laidlawii
2. Journal of General Virolooy 18, 127-133. ||
36. & WYLD, S. G. (1973). Isolation of
Mycoplasmatales virus laidlawii 3, a new virus
infecting Acholeolasma laidlawii.
Journal of General Virology (in press).