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dc.contributor.authorLyon, D. Murrayen
dc.date.accessioned2018-09-13T16:04:42Z
dc.date.available2018-09-13T16:04:42Z
dc.date.issued1924
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/32570
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractDuring the course of some investigations on the carbohydrate metabolism, the rise in the blood sugar concentration following injection of adrenalin, was studied. The curves of adrenalin hypergylcaemia presented some unusual features, and in order to interpret them it seemed desirable to examine some of the other reactions produced by the drug. For this purpose a large number of observations were made on a series of individuals. The subjects chosen for this purpose include a few patients in whom no abnormality of the ductless glands was present, a number of diabetics and asthmatics, and several cases with thyroid involvement.en
dc.description.abstractGreat care was talcen to get the subjects into a satisfactory state before the examination was begun. The patients, having fasted for fifteen hours, were put at rest in a quiet room, preliminary estimations of blood-pressure, pulse-rate, and respiration-rate v/ere made occasionally. A Rosling or a Haldane face-mask was then adjusted, and when the circulatory phenomena had quietened down and the readings had fallen to a constant level, a 10-minute sample of expired air was taken in a Douglas hag for the estimation of the basal metabolic rate. The preliminary observations usually lasted from thirty minutes to an hour.en
dc.description.abstractAfter this, adrenalin was injected subcutaneously on the outer aspect of the forearm, about two inches below the elbow. The dose employed was usually from o. 5 “ i-0 cc. of 1 : 1,000 solution of adrenalin chloride (P.D. & Co.), but smaller amounts have also been given. Following the injection, samples of expired air were collected over lo-minute periods for an hour, and a final sample was taken - after a further interval of 30 minutes. The carbon dioxide and oxygen percentages in these samples were estimated by the Haldane gas-analysis apparatus. During the whole of the experiment, records of the systolic and diastolic blood-pressures together with the pulse-rate and the respiration-rate, were taken every two minutes. The data have been examined in various ways, and some of the results are presented below.en
dc.description.abstractEvery precaution was taken to avoid sources of fallacy, but difficulties were sometimes met with. The needle puncture seldom caused sufficient pain to disturb the results, though occasionally the pulse-rate momentarily increased by 5 to 20 beats, returning to normal before the next observation (cf. Clough). More rarely there was also a rise of about 5 mm. in the systolic blood-pressure. In two cases frequent samples of venous blood were taken at the same time as the other examination was being made, and it was noticed that if pain were caused by the needle a secondary rise of metabolic rate, pressure, &c., soon followed, while an unusual, increase in the blood-sugar occurred about 20 minutes later. When difficulty was experienced in getting the mask to fit closely there was a temptation to adjust it very tightly. For a time no discomfort would be felt, but later, pain developed at the points of pressure and caused the patient to worry and fidget. Another important cause of restlessness in the subject was the discomfort produced by lying motionless for such a long time, These sensations gave rise to occasional sighs or definite over-ventilation, resulting in an increase in carbon dioxide output, and such reactions could be recognized easily in the graphic records by the presence of a later secondary rise in the metabolic rate. No corresponding increase took place in the circulatory curves in these cases.en
dc.description.abstractWhen the patient was highly emotional, a very irregular series of respiratory quotients would be obtained, but even in these circumstances the readings of the total metabolism might show a fairly uniform movement. in very unstable subjects a sudden loud noise or the appearance of a stranger would cause a slight temporary disturbance, which usually showed itself as a rise in pulse-rate, or less often as an increase of about 5 mm. in the blood-pressure.en
dc.description.abstractAnother difficulty sometimes met with was that the initial levels of the readings remained high apparently from continued excitement. In one case, for example, when the patient’s blood-pressure was taken in the general ward it was about 155mm. Hg, but when she was prepared for examination in the special chamber the systolic pressure would rise to 200, and even a prolonged rest failed to reduce it below 190.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2018 Block 20en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyen
dc.titleSome observations on the action of adrenalinen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnameDSc Doctor of Scienceen


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