Show simple item record

dc.contributor.advisorHenderson, Roberten
dc.contributor.advisorUnderwood, Ianen
dc.contributor.authorParmesan, Lucaen
dc.date.accessioned2018-10-24T10:37:59Z
dc.date.available2018-10-24T10:37:59Z
dc.date.issued2018-11-29
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/33171
dc.description.abstractFLIM is branch of microscopy mainly used in biology which is quickly improving thanks to a rapid enhancement of instrumentation and techniques enabled by new sensors. In FLIM, the most precise method of measuring fluorescent decays is called TCSPC. High voltage PMT detection devices together with costly and bulky optical setups which scan the sample are usually required in TCSPC instrumentation. SPADs have enabled a big improvement in TCSPC measurement setup, providing a CMOS compatible device which can be designed in wide arrays format. However, sensors providing in-pixel TCSPC do not scale in size and in large array like the time-gated SPAD pixel sensors do. Time-gated pixels offer a less precise lifetime estimation, discarding any photon information outside a given time window, but this loss in photon-efficiency is offset by gains in pixel size. This work is aimed at the development of a wide field TCSPC sensor with a pixel size and fill factor able to reduce the cost of such devices and to obtain a high resolution time-resolved fluorescence image in the shortest time possible. The study focuses on SPAD and pixel design required to maximise the fill factor in sub 10 μm pixel pitch. Multiple pixel designs are proposed in order to reduce pixel area and so enable affordable wide array TCSPC systems. The first proposed pixel performs the CMM lifetime estimation in order to reduce the frame rate needed to stream the data out of the SPAD array. This pixel is designed in a 10 μm pitch and attains with the most aggressive design a fill factor of 10:17 %. A second design proposes an analogue TCSPC which consists in a S/H TAC circuitry. This simpler pixel can achieve a higher fill factor of 19:63% as well as smaller pitch of 8 μm thanks to the adoption of SPAD n-well and electronics area sharing. This last design is implemented in a 320 x 256 SPAD array in which is included part of a novel ADC aimed at reduction of the processing time required to build a TCSPC histogram. A more conventional analogue readout is used to evaluate the pixel performance as well as a more fine TCSPC histogram. The device was used to measure the fluorescence lifetime of green micro-spheres while the 2b flash ADC is used to demonstrate rapid resolution and separation of two different fluorescence decays.en
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.hasversionL. Parmesan, N. A. Dutton, N. J. Calder, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “A 256x256 SPAD array with in-pixel Time to Amplitude Conversion for Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging Microscopy”, in International Image Sensor Workshop, Vaals, The Netherlands, 2015, pp. 8–11.en
dc.relation.hasversionL. Parmesan, N. A. W. Dutton, N. J. Calder, A. J. Holmes, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “A 9.8 μm sample and hold time to amplitude converter CMOS SPAD pixel”, in 44th European Solid State Device Research Conference (ESSDERC), IEEE, 2014, pp. 290–293.en
dc.relation.hasversionS. Gnecchi, N. A. W. Dutton, L. Parmesan, B. R. Rae, S. Pellegrini, S. J. McLeod, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “Digital Silicon Photomultipliers With OR/XOR Pulse Combining Techniques”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–6, 2016.en
dc.relation.hasversionS. Gnecchi, N. A. W. Dutton, L. Parmesan, B. R. Rae, S. J. McLeod, S. Pellegrini, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “A Simulation Model for Digital Silicon Photomultipliers”, IEEE Transactions on Nuclear Science, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 1343–1350, 2016.en
dc.relation.hasversionN. A. W. Dutton, L. Parmesan, A. J. Holmes, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “320x240 oversampled digital single photon counting image sensor”, in 2014 Symposium on VLSI Circuits Digest of Technical Papers, IEEE, 2014, pp. 1–2.en
dc.relation.hasversionN. A. Dutton, L. Parmesan, S. Gnecchi, I. Gyongy, N. J. Calder, B. R. Rae, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “Oversampled ITOF Imaging Techniques using SPADbased Quanta Image Sensors”, in International Image Sensor Workshop, Vaals, The Netherlands, 2015, pp. 1–4.en
dc.relation.hasversionI. Gyongy, N. A. Dutton, L. Parmesan, A. Davies, R. Saleeb, R. Duncan, C. Rickman, P. Dalgarno and R. K. Henderson, “Bit-plane Processing Techniques for Low-Light, High Speed Imaging with a SPAD-based QIS”, in International Image Sensor Workshop, Vaals, The Netherlands, 2015, pp. 3–6.en
dc.relation.hasversionN. A. W. Dutton, I. Gyongy, L. Parmesan, S. Gnecchi, N. J. Calder, B. R. Rae, S. Pellegrini, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “A SPAD-Based QVGA Image Sensor for Single-Photon Counting and Quanta Imaging”, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, vol. PP, no. 99, pp. 1–1, 2015.en
dc.relation.hasversionN. Dutton, I. Gyongy, L. Parmesan and R. Henderson, “Single Photon Counting Performance and Noise Analysis of CMOS SPAD-Based Image Sensors”, Sensors, vol. 16, no. 7, p. 1122, 2016.en
dc.relation.hasversionN. Finlayson, L. Parmesan, N. A. W. Dutton, N. J. Calder and R. K. Henderson, “TACImager: a high frame rate 320 x 256 SPAD time to amplitude converter array with adjustable time zoom”, in SPIE Security and Defence Conference, K. L. Lewis and R. C. Hollins, Eds., Edinburgh, United Kingdom, 2016, 99920O.en
dc.relation.hasversionN. A. W. Dutton, S. Gnecchi, L. Parmesan, A. J. Holmes, B. Rae, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “11.5 A time-correlated single-photon-counting sensor with 14GS/S histogramming time-to-digital converter”, in 2015 IEEE International Solid-State Circuits Conference - (ISSCC) Digest of Technical Papers, IEEE, 2015, pp. 1–3.en
dc.relation.hasversionS. Gnecchi, N. A.W. Dutton, L. Parmesan, B. R. Rae, S. Pellegrini, S. J. McLeod, L. A. Grant and R. K. Henderson, “Analysis of Photon Detection Efficiency and Dynamic Range in SPAD-Based Visible Light Receivers”, Journal of Lightwave Technology, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2774–2781, 2016.en
dc.subjectSPADen
dc.subjectsingle photon avalanche diodeen
dc.subjectFLIMen
dc.subjectfluorescence lifetime imaging microscopyen
dc.subjectfluorescenceen
dc.subjectTACen
dc.subjecttime to analogue converteren
dc.titlePhoton efficient, high resolution, time resolved SPAD image sensors for fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopyen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen
dc.rights.embargodate2100-12-31
dcterms.accessRightsRestricted Accessen


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record