Show simple item record

dc.contributor.authorPage, George F. B.en
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-15T14:15:44Z
dc.date.available2019-02-15T14:15:44Z
dc.date.issued1922
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/33446
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractWith the exception of iron, lead plays a more important part in the lives of the civilised nations of to-day than any other metal. Among metallic poisons lead is facile princepe. These two facts raise the subject of lead poisoning to a position of the first importance, not only from the point of view of preventive medicine, but from the point of view of the general practitioner and the community at large whom he serves. Lead enters very intimately into industrial and domestic life. Apart from the smelting of the metal itself, and from the preparation of its compounds, lead is found in so many trades that an exhaustive list would reach a very considerable length. Among everyday occupations one might mention plumbing, painting and lithographing; the manufacture of china-ware, pottery and glass; the huge tin plate trade which in turn supports the canned food industry; and even the polishing of precious stones. Lead may enter our houses in drinking water, which is commonly conveyed in lead pipes and stored in lead lined cisterns. Conditions may occur which render a safe and potable water plumbo -solvent, and serious harm may be done before the danger is realise The use of tinned foods is increasing and they are a necessity in our naval and military services. Cheap tin plate, cheap enamelled ware and cheap pottery may yield lead to acid contents. Despite opposition and the advertisement of substitutes lead paints continue to be used very largely for every sort of purpose. Lead and its compounds are ornni- present, and wherever they are found in absorbable form they remain a danger. Nor are the symptoms of early plumbism of such a kind as to constitute any kind of safeguard or warning. Absorption may be slow, the attack insidious and recognition too late. The toxic qualities of lead have been known for a very long time, but to Tanquerel des Planches belong the credit of the classical description of the signs and symptoms. Sir Thomas Oliver of Newcastle-on-Tyne has done much to increase our knowledge in recent years, and to bring industrial lead poisoning into prominence. Among other writers in the English language may be mentioned Goadby and Legge in this country, and Alice Hamilton in America. The legislature of almost all civilised countries has recognised the impairment of health and high mortality suffered by workers in trades wherein lead may be absorbed, and such trades are described as "dangerous unhealthy industries". The Factory and Workshops', Act of 1895 made cases of lead poisoning occurring in factories and workshops notifiable, and it is at this point that our statistical knowledge of industrial plumbism commences. The order was repeated in the Act of 1901, but it is noteworthy that plumbism among house-painters and ship-painters is not included. As notification in this class of worker is voluntary, our returns are necessarily incomplete, and this is the more regrettable as it is believed that the incidence of plumbism is high among them. The beneficial results of legislation are shown in the White Lead Trade. In the ten years 1900 to 1909 the cases notified had fallen from 358 to 32, and the deaths from 6 to 2. "In 1912 the manufacture of white lead no longer occupies the unenviable position of first place in the list of trades in which plumbism occurs. The position is taken by the earthenware and pottery industry and close upon it comes coach- building". Such a chapter compares favourably with any in the annals of preventive medicine, but the matter has not been allowed to rest there. The Earthenware and China Industry has been attacked by a Parliamentary Departmental Committee, and under the powers of the existing Act comprehensive regulations were gazetted on 7th January 1913. To these and previous orders must be attributed the improved health of the workers. The latest information. calls attention to the diminishing number of cases and deaths in most of the trades concerned, and to the reduction in the severity of the symptoms and in the number of chronic cases. It is, however, admitted that during the War many industries were adversely affected, and that the improvement for this period is more apparent than real. The especially baneful effect of lead upon women and young people was made the subject of certain recommendations by the General Conference of the International Labour Organisation held at Washington in 1919, and the points raised have been embodied in the "Women and Young Persons (Employment in Lead Processes) Act of 1920." Still the incidence of lead poisoning remains too high.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2019 Block 22en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyen
dc.titleLead poisoning: with special reference to renal and vascular symptomsen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnameMD Doctor of Medicineen


Files in this item

This item appears in the following Collection(s)

Show simple item record