Study of re-writing in the poetry of Arthur Hugh Clough
Scott, Patrick Greig
For all the recent interest in Clough's poetry, there has been little critical study of the numerous drafts and revisions that he made, although these are unusual, both in their number and in the radical nature of the differences between the various versions. Drawing on the published variants in the revised Oxford Poems of Arthur Hugh Clough, and on the Clough manuscripts at Oxford and at Harvard, this thesis attempts, through a mixture of literary, biographical, and textual criticism, a broadly chronological study of the kinds of re-writing Clough was doing at different periods of his life, concentrating on detailed study of the major poems. Chapter I outlines the changing attitudes of critics to the "unfinished" state of many of Clough's poems, and examines the role of re-writing in Clough's poetic theory. Chapter II, drawing on Clough's recently-released journals, shows how his Rugby poetry already showed traces of rewriting. Chapter III surveys Tractarian attitudes to the process of literary composition, and their appeal to Clough, and argues, through detailed study of three manuscript groups, that in his Oxford years re-writing became central to Clough's art. Chapters IV-VII give stage-by-stage analyses of the composition and re-writing of Adam and Eve, The Bothie, Amours -de Voyage, and Dipsychus, and suggest that the success of Amours de Voyage stems from Clough's incorporation into the later versions of divergent attitudes from his earlier drafts. Chapter VIII demonstrates the more stable pattern of composition in Clough's later work. A brief conclusion relates this study to the difficulty of editing the Clough texts. Appendices are devoted to (i) the texts of "The Longest Day"; (ii) the posthumous editions of Clough's Poems (1862); and (iii) a bibliography of early editions (1835-69). A published edition of Amours de Voyage is submitted in support of the thesis.