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dc.contributor.authorWestburgh, Edward M.en
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-15T14:26:33Z
dc.date.available2019-02-15T14:26:33Z
dc.date.issued1933
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/34399
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractClinical Psychology has a most promising future if properly developed and directed. In too many places prejudice is created against it by psychologists who know nothing of clinical method. They do mental measuring and call it clinical psychology. The medical profession has come to recognise the unusual possibilities and great need for helping maladjusted individuals. Along with the new interest in preventive medicine, the psychologically trained physician is giving serious thought to the prevention of behaviour disorders. The psychiatrist gets results in this field because he has been taught to interpret human conduct as an integrated whole and to look for the dynamic factors, or the motivations and emotions of children and adults. Psychologists have been too concerned with mental abilities alone and neglected too long the affective side of human behaviour.en
dc.description.abstractThis paper is presented as a scheme for clinical procedure in a psychological clinic. Its original basis is the purely psychological clinical method developed by Professor Witmer and others, complemented and supplemented by the procedure psychiatrists use in the study of the personality of their patients. It is a response to the feeling of many, that the time is ripe for a logical and systematic presentation of the non-psycho-analytic clinical method in psychology.en
dc.description.abstractThe facts, the arrangement of material, the points of emphasis, and the technique of the analysis, have been determined by the writer's experiences in the intensive individual study of hundreds of children and hundreds of adults - the latter in connection with personal malacustments, vocational guidance and the selection, promotion, and executive reorganization of business and industrial personnel.en
dc.description.abstractPersonality, in this paper, is considered as the total effect, total impression, total impact, that the organism, as a whole, makes on other human beings. It includes what are commonly called temperament traits, physical characteristics and capacities, as well as mental abilities.en
dc.description.abstractIt is a practical outline. Theoretic soundness has been given due consideration but fine distinctions cannot always be made. Clinical psychology is a field to which academic psychology has given comparatively little attention; in which it has made only limited differentiations and applied few experimental methods. Professor Witmerx distinguishes between intelligence and intellect for clinical purposes. Although psychologists may doubt if there is such a fundamental distinction in mental processes, in clinical work many such practical distinctions have to be made. Those with experience in clinical work know that there is such a difference (as Witmer describes) from the point of view of observed behaviour. Intelligence and intellect may be two phases of like the same process. They may be /two views of an arc. Looking at an arc from one point of view makes it concave, observing it from another point of view makes it convex. The clinical psychologist must note whether the behaviour is concave or convex, so to speak, if he is to paint a reliable and useful clinical picture of the individual studied. He must note that some individuals absorb and retain knowledge readily but solve poorly the problems of living and succeeding, and that others are poor in intellectual activities but brilliantly successful in accomplishing what they want.en
dc.description.abstractNo outline is too comprehensive if it does not include non -essentials. Recommendations, and treatment of a patient are not justified unless the problem, and the person with the problem, and the environment in which he must function, are thoroughly understood. An undetailed outline is useless for unskilled clinical psychologists. If they do not have in mind, and do not look for the many potentially important factors in the personality and environment of the person being studied, they will err in diagnosis because they will fail to uncover the vital factors or they will be led astray by apparent and partial explanations when the answer lies deeper and is more complex. No one having a right to do clinical work will go through all the items listed and discussed in the paper. He will use his past experience to guide him to the important factors in the particular individual before him. He must, however, be conscious of the many other possibilities, and feel satis- fied that he has not neglected something that may be vital. Not to have a detailed outline would require a different guide for each subject studied. All the facts emphesi_ zed in the paper and the items in the appendix have had bearing on the diagnosis and treatment of an actual problem of real persons. Facts have not been included by chance or as the result of speculation alone.en
dc.description.abstractThe length of time it takes to make a personality study depends upon the success with which the patient conceals the real problem and tree extent and complexity of the experiences of the subject. Children and simple adults take three to four hours, complex and superior individuals take five to ten hours. If the problem is not important enough to spend that much time upon it, it cannot be very serious. Psychologists and psychiatrists stand to make or mar the happiness of those with whom they work. They are not gods who are privileged by a toss of a coin to break or make habits, alter ideals, change environments, create new hates and loves, without sufficient knowledge to feel reasonably certain,that they understand the person they are trying to help; that they appreciate his problems, and are able to direct him to a more successful and happier life.en
dc.description.abstractThere is considerable overlapping under the various headings. This does not mean that the same information must be secured several times. The overlappings indicate that the same information must be viewed and evaluated from a number of directions. Mental processes, emotional experiences and physical responses are not unit experiences. The organism responds as a whole. It is not possible to separate completely, social conduct from emotional experiences or ideas from physical reactions. Then too,the same facts may be important as a matter of etiology, adjustment or therapy; the same terms may apply to a number of abilities or emotions or combinations of these. Therefore s cane of the same or similar facts must be given under more than one heading for purposes of completeness and clarity.en
dc.description.abstractThe paper is divided into two parts. The first part covers information that may have to be secured if reliable judgments are to be made; the second part is concerned with factors that must be described and evaluated.en
dc.description.abstractThe facts provided by the interview are classified under seven headings - Family, Early Developmental, Educational, Social,Vocational, Emotional, and Health History. The description of the personality of an individual is divided into three parts: Cognitive, Affective, and Physical Factors. An appendix is added, giving in brief outline form all the essential facts of parts one and two.en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2019 Block 22en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyen
dc.titlePersonality analysis from the clinical point of viewen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnamePhD Doctor of Philosophyen


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