This thesis comprises one book and 36 articles and chapters on the
theme of pre-industrial economic and social patterns in Britain, which have
been published over a period of fourteen years. The articles are presented
in chronological order to demonstrate the way in which the author's ideas
have developed through time. The research focuses on Scotland between the
sixteenth and the late eighteenth centuries. One of the most important
themes concerns the nature of Scottish agriculture in the early modern
period, its technology and practices, its regional variations and the
chronology of agrarian change and improvement. Other topics include rural
settlement patterns, rural housing and the structure of rural society,
patterns of debt and credit, landownership and estate management, land
tenure and the condition of tenant farmers, marketing and trading,
the effects of climatic change on agriculture, migration and population
mobility, urbanization, urban occupational and social structures, and
An important element of the study is the evaluation of a range of
historical sources, including estate papers, commissary court testaments,
and records relating to migration which have so far received little
attention, in a Scottish context, from social and economic historians. In
several of the articles the author's training, as a geographer, in
techniques of statistical analysis has been used to develop new ways of
exploring historical data and to frame new hypotheses relating to economic
and social patterns. The thesis also includes review articles relating to
Scottish historical geography, Scottish rural settlement and the
contributions of historical geographers to medieval studies within Britain.
Taken together this material represents a significant contribution to
scholarship relating to early -modern Scotland. A recurring theme throughout
the thesis is the way in which detailed research by the author has
demonstrated that the society and economy of Scotland between the sixteenth
and the late eighteenth centuries was more complex, more developed, more
varied regionally and less primitive than has been accepted in the past.
The results of the research highlight many of the ways in which Scotland
developed between the Reformation and the Industrial Revolution.
VOLUME I. •
1976 Rural housing in Lowland Scotland in the
seventeenth century: the evidence of
estate papers. Scottish Studies, 19, 55-68.
1977 Grain production in East Lothian in the
seventeenth century. Transactions of the
East Lothian Antiquarian Society, 15,
1978 Scottish historical geography: a review.
Scottish Geographical Magazine, 94, 4-24.
1978 Was there a Scottish Agricultural
Revolution? Area, 10, 203-5.
1979 Written leases and their impact on Scottish
agriculture in the seventeenth century.
Agricultural History Review, 27, 1-9.
1979 The evolution of rural housing in Scotland
in a West European context. In P. Flatres
(ed.) Paysages ruraux Europeens. Rennes.
1979 The growth of periodic market centres in
Scotland 1600-1707. Scottish Geographical
Magazine, 95, 13-26.
1979 Infield-outfield farming on a seventeenth -
century Scottish estate. Journal of
Historical Geography, 5, 391-402.
1979 The East Lothian grain trade 1660-1707.
Transactions of the East Lothian
Antiquarian Society, 16, 15-25.
1980 The emergence of the new estate structure.
In M.L. Parry & T.R. Slater (eds.) The
making of the Scottish countryside. Groom
Helm, London, 117-36.
1981 Sources for Scottish historical geography:
an introductory guide. Historical Geography
Research Series, Geo Books, Norwich. 48pp.
1981 The evolution of rural settlement in Lowland
Scotland in medieval and early- modern times:
an exploration. Scottish Geograpical
Magazine, 97, 4-15.
1981 George Dundas of Dundas: the context of an
early eighteenth century Scottish improving
landowner. Scottish Historical Review.
1981 The historical geography of rural settlement
in Scotland: a review. Research papers
series, Department of Geography, University
of Edinburgh. 62pp.
1981 Human responses to short- and long-term
climatic fluctuations: the example of
early- modern Scotland. In M.L. Parry &
C. Delano -Smith (eds.) Consequences of
climatic change. University of Nottingham.
1983 Some aspects of the structure of rural society
in seventeenth -century Lowland Scotland, In
T.M. Devine & D, Dickson (eds.) Ireland and
Scotland 1600-1850. Edinburgh, John Donald,
32-46. (With K.A. Whyte) .
1983 Regional and local variations in seventeenth-century Scottish farming: a preliminary
survey of the evidence of Commissary Court
testaments. Manchester Geographer, 3, 49-59.
(With K.A. Whyte).
1983 Early- modern Scotland: continuity and change.
In G. Whittington & I.D. Whyte (eds.) An
Historical Geography of Scotland. London,
Academic Press, 119-40.
1983 Scottish rural communities in the seventeenth
century. Local Historian, 15, 456-63. (With
VOLUME II. •
1984 Continuity and change in a seventeenth -century
Scottish farming community. Agricultural
History Review, 32, 159-69. (With K.A. Whyte). 1984 Geographical mobility in a seventeenth- century
Scottish rural community. Local Population
Studies 32, 45-53. (With K.A. Whyte).
1985 Shielings and the upland pastoral economy of
the Lake District in medieval and early-
modern times. In J.R. Baldwin & I.D. Whyte
(Eds.) The Scandinavians in Cumbria. Scottish
Society for Northern Studies, Edinburgh,
1985 Poisson regression analysis and migration
fields: the example of the apprenticeship
records of Edinburgh in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries. Transactions of the
Institute of British Geographers, 10,
317-32. (With A.A. Lovett & K.A. Whyte.)
1986 Agriculture in Aberdeenshire in the
seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries:
continuity and change. In D. Stevenson (ed.)
From lairds to loons: county and burgh life
in Aberdeen 1600-1800. Aberdeen University
1986 Commissary Court testaments: a neglected
source for Scottish local history. Local
Historian, 17 4-10. (With K.A. Whyte.)
1987 Patterns of migration of apprentices into
Aberdeen and Inverness during the eighteenth
and early nineteenth centuries. Scottish
Geographical Magazine, 102, 81-91. (With
1987 The occupational structure of Scottish burghs
in the late seventeenth century. In M. Lynch
(ed,) The early modern town in Scotland.
London, Croom Helm, 219-44.
1987 Medieval economy and society. In M. Pacione
(ed.) Historical geography: progress and
prospect. London. Groom Helm. 96-122.
1987 Marriage and mobility in East Lothian in
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
Transactions of the East Lothian Antiquarian
Society, 19, 17-30.
1987 The function and social structure of Scottish
burghs of barony in the seventeenth and
eighteenth centuries. Proceedings of international
urban history conference, Wolfenbuttel,
1988 Debt and credit, poverty and prosperity in a
seventeenth-century Scottish rural community.
In P. Roebuck & R. Mitchison (eds.) Scotland
and Ireland: a comparative study of develop -
ment. Edinburgh, John Donald, 70-80. (With
1988 The geographical mobility of women in early -modern
Scotland. In L. Leneman (ed.), Perspectives in
Scottish social history; essays in honour of
Rosalind Mitchison. Aberdeen University Press,
83-106. (With K.A. Whyte.)
1989 Scottish society in perspective. In R.A. Houston
& I.D. Whyte (eds.) Scottish society 1500-1800.
Cambridge University Press, 1-36. (With R.A.
1989 Population mobility. In R.A. Houston & I.D.
Whyte (eds.) Scottish society 1500-1800.
Cambridge University Press, 37-58.
1989 Urbanization in early- modern Scotland: a
preliminary analysis. Scottish Journal of
Economic and Social History. Forthcoming.
1989 Protoindustrialization in early-modern
Scotland. In P. Hudson (ed,) Regions and
Industries. Cambridge University Press,
Forthcoming. • •
SUBMITTED SEPARATELY: •
1979 Agriculture and rural society in seventeenth -
century Scotland. Edinburgh. John Donald. 301pp.