I. Studies on the Cercopidae; II. The biological control of Clidemia hirta. D. Don.
- PART I. "The Structure and Biononics of
Philaenue s pumarius , Linnaeus."
- PART II. "Description of some South American
and West Indian species of the genus
Tor,raspis (Aripot and Serville) with special
references to the Bale Genitalia."
Section B dealt with the morphology of the male
genitalia of a group of species, which, have been included
in one series - the Saccharine Series. Each of these
species conform to the genital type of structure, of the
male genitalia, characteristic of this series. These
characteristics are briefly as follows:-
(1) The Pygophoral Style. - plate like, the posterior
terminal margin varying in outline.
(2) The Genital Style. - characterised by the 'possession
of (a) the hump, (b) an armature of a
median harpe, Posterior to the hump, and a
posterior harpe, situated at the end of
Dos a arm, (c) a comb of setae at the base
o f the median harpe.
(3) The Penis. - long and tubular, broad at base
narrowing medially and distally, with two long
and narrow penal hooks situated halfway along
the penis aria pointing towards its base.
Each of the species, although conforming to this description,
differ in some respects, either in one or all the three
structures, on the other hand, several species are more
alike to each other, than they are to the rest, and it is
quite evident that this series can be divided into the
three minor groups, in each of which the Genital styles of
the species are very similar. Group 1 consists of T.
saccharina, T. carmodtri; T. bodkini, T. flavilatera and
T. propinqua; Group II
- T. reducta, T. purich and T.
postica; Group III - bogotensis, T. lepidior and T.
jugata. Thus by considering these similarities and
differences a table can be drawn up. The penis is
similar throughout the series, the only variation being in
the length of the penal hooks. The pygophoral style however
varies, each species having a type peculiar to itself,
so that this structure is of great specific importance.
In Section C, the type of male genitalia of five
other series are described, and the descriptions show
clearly, that each series has a characteristic type of
structure, especially the Genital Style, which separates
them from the Saccharine Series and from each other. It
is quite apparent therefore, that if further work be done
with other species of the genus Tomaspis, and the work be
extended to other genera of she family Cercopidae, a
possible moans may be obtained, by which this family could
be classified -- that is, on the structure of the male
In each of the series, the most consistent structure
is the genital style. Although varying in minor specific
characters, the main plan of the type is maintained in all
the species of each series. This would then suggest
that each series would be identified according to the
character of the genital style. The penis again varies
but little in each series and may be regarded with nearly,
if not as much importance as the genital style. The
identification of each species in each series will
depend on the minor specific differences in the genital
style and penis, such as (in Saccharine Series) size and
shape of hump and harpes, degree of chitinisation and
bluntness or sharpness of the harpes, the length of the
posterior arm, the number of setae in the comb, and
whether the setae are closely set or not, length of
penal hooks etc. All these however, will be of minor
importance compared with the T ygo horal style, and it
will be chiefly$ this structure, that a species will be
II. The biological control of Clidemia hirta. D. Don.
(1) The possibility of controlling a weed, Clidemïa
hirta D. Don by chalcids, forming galls in the half-mature fruits is discussed.
(2) In the course of the study, an interesting association
of insects of this plant was discerned. The
association includes three gall- forming chalcids, each
of which has its own parasites, a Cecidomyid which
attacks the blossoms and young fruitlets, and two fruit devouring
caterpillars, which are also parasitised.
(3) The life histories and descriptions of the three
gall - formers and the Cecidomyid are given, together with
an account of the damage caused by their infestation.
(4) The economic importance of the various species
is discussed and the conclusions arrived at are as follows:-
(a) Because of the low percentage of infestation
probably due to parasitism, and also the nature of the
damage, it is concluded that the gall - formers are useless
as a means of controlling Clidemia.
(b) The study of the Cecidomyid was cut short, but the
results obtained were so promising as to surest that a
further and more thorough investigation of This insect
would be warranted.