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dc.contributor.authorLittlejohn, G. S.en
dc.date.accessioned2019-02-15T14:33:23Z
dc.date.available2019-02-15T14:33:23Z
dc.date.issued1996
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/1842/34967
dc.description.abstracten
dc.description.abstractThis thesis comprises 28 papers which illustrate the nature and direction of development work and associated research undertaken between 1965 and 1993 on soil and rock anchorage systems. The research was performed in order to obtain a basic understanding of the behaviour of newly developed anchorage systems in a variety of ground types and conditions, in order to improve anchorage designs, construction methods and testing procedures, and thereby encourage the safe and economic application of ground anchorages worldwide. Field development of anchorage construction methods in gravels, sand, clays, marls and chalk using cement grout injection techniques is described together with equations evolved to estimate the ultimate resistance to withdrawal for each ground type, based on systematic testing of full scale anchorages. A new design method for single and multi tied stiff retaining walls installed in any soil is detailed and validated by large scale tests and closely monitored case histories. The interactions between wall, anchorage and soil are illustrated, coupled with the refinement of overall stability analyses in cohesionless soils using wedge and log spiral based mechanisms of failure. For the rapid installation of anchorages in granular soils, vibratory driving is investigated in the laboratory and two distinct types of motion are found to exist. Theoretical equations of motion are developed to define the penetration processes and facilitate the design of vibrodrivers and vibrohammers. World practice in relation to the design, construction, testing and behaviour of rock anchorages is appraised, and field studies permit an improved understanding of uplift capacity by general shear failure, load transfer mechanisms, bond at rock/grout and grout/tendon interfaces, debonding, service performance and post-failure behaviour. Acceptance criteria related to service behaviour are created for load relaxation and creep displacement with time, which are independent of ground type and potentially of short duration. The extent and nature of steel tendon corrosion is described based on an international study of the corrosion performance of post-tensioned anchorages. Guidance is provided on class of protection, design principles and acceptable protective systems. For rock tunnelling by drill and blast methods of excavation, a fundamental understanding of rock bolt behaviour under static and dynamic loading is provided. Field, laboratory and finite element studies are combined to investigate the character of blast induced wave forms within a rock mass and the effect of these signatures on the rock bolt system. Attenuation relationships for peak particle velocity and peak dynamic bolt load are presented together with effect of bolt prestress, bolt length, and both single and two speed resin systems. Observations confirm that resin bonded rock bolts have a remarkable resilience to close proximity blasting, and the data provide a new understanding of stress transfer in tensioned bolts under static and dynamic conditions. A simple device to control rock bolt tensioning is developed and applied as a result of observed variations in prestress during production bolting. Ground anchorage technology is reviewed to highlight areas where further investigation and study would enhance understanding of anchorage behaviour and improve standards of practice.en
dc.description.abstractPUBLICATIONS INCLUDED IN THESIS: #2. HSU, T.C., LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & MARCHBANK, B.M. (1965) "Elongation in the Tension Test as a Measure of Ductility" Proc. Amer. Soc. Test. Mat., 65, 874-98. (Hsu wrote the paper and supervised the research of Littlejohn and Marchbank who provided the data.) #3. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1968) "Recent Developments in Ground Anchor Construction" Ground Engineering, 1(3), 32-36 & 46. #4. HANNA, T.H. & (1969) "Retaining Wall Tie-Backs" LITTLEJOHN, G.S. Consulting Engineer, May, 50-53, June, 49-52. (Hanna and Littlejohn contributed equally to this paper.) #6. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #8. LITTLEJOHN, G.S., JACK, B.J. & SLIWINSKI, Z.J. (1971) "Anchored Diaphragm Walls - Some Design and Construction Considerations" Journal of the Institution of Highway Engineers, 18 (4), 15-29. (Littlejohn co-ordinated this paper and contributed half the data.) #13. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & (1974) "A Case History Study of Multi-Tied Diaphragm MACFARLANE, I.M. Walls" Proc. Conf. on Diaphragm Walls and Anchorages, 113-121, Institution of Civil Engineers, London. (Littlejohn wrote the paper. Macfarlane provided technical data.) #14. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & (1974) "Ground Anchors at Devonport Nuclear Complex" TRUMAN-DAVIES, C. Ground Engineering, 7 (6), 19-24. (Littlejohn wrote the paper. Truman-Davies supervised the field work.) #16. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & (1975) "Rock Anchors - State-of-the-Art Part 1: Design" BRUCE, D.A. Ground Engineering, 8 (3), 25-32, 8 (4), 41-48. (Littlejohn wrote the paper and supervised Bruce's Ph.D. programme.) #18. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & (1975) "Rock Anchors - State-of-the-Art Part 2; BRUCE, D.A. Construction" Ground Engineering, 8 (5), 34-45, 8 (6), 36-45. (Littlejohn wrote the paper and supervised Bruce's Ph.D. programme.) #19. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & (1976) "Rock Anchors - State-of-the-Art Part 3: Stressing BRUCE, D.A. and Testing" Ground Engineering, 9 (2), 20-29, 9 (3), 55-60, 9 (4), 33-44. (Littlejohn wrote the paper and supervised Bruce's Ph.D. programme.) #20. LITTLEJOHN, G.S., (1977) "A Study of Rock Slope Reinforcement at Westfield NORTON, P.J. & Open Pit and the Effect of Blasting on Prestressed TURNER, M.J. Anchors" Proc. Conference on Rock Engineering, University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne, England. (Littlejohn wrote the paper. Norton and Turner provided technical data.) #22. LITTLEJOHN, G.S., (1977) "Anchor Field Tests in Carboniferous Strata" BRUCE, D.A. & Revue Francaise de Geotechnique No. 3, DEPPNER, W. January 1978, 82-86. (Littlejohn wrote the paper. Bruce and Deppner provided field data.) #28. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. & (1979) "Long Term Performance of High Capacity Rock BRUCE, D.A. Anchors at Devonport" Ground Engineering, 12 (7), 25-33. (Littlejohn and Bruce jointly wrote the paper. Bruce provided the field data under the supervision of Littlejohn.) #29. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #30. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #32. RODGER, A.A. & (1980) "A Study of Vibratory Driving in Granular Soils" LITTLEJOHN, G.S. Geotechnique, 30 (3), 269-93. (Rodger and Littlejohn jointly wrote the paper. Littlejohn supervised Rodger's Ph.D. programme) #34. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1981) "Acceptance Criteria for the Service Behaviour of Ground Anchorages" Ground Engineering, 14 (3), 26-29 & 36. #36. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #50. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1987) "Ground Anchorages : Corrosion Performance" Proc. Instn. Civ. Engrs., Part 1, 82, 645-662. #51. LITTLEJOHN, G.S., (1987) "Monitoring the Influence of Blasting on the RODGER, A.A., Performance of Rock Bolts at Penmaenbach MOTHERSILLE, D.K.V. Tunnel" & HOLLAND, D.C. Proc. Int. Conf. on Foundations and Tunnels, University of London, 1,99-106. (Littlejohn and Rodger jointly wrote the paper and supervised Mothersille's and Holland's research work.) #52. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1988) "Sprayed Concrete for Underground Support" Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Underground Space and Earth Sheltered Buildings, Shanghai, China. #53. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1988) "Rock Anchorages for Underground Support" Proc. 3rd Int. Conf. on Underground Space and Earth Sheltered Buildings, Shanghai, China. "Thermal Behaviour of Grouted Supports for Pipelines" Department of Energy - Offshore Technology Report 'Grouts and Grouting for Construction and Repair of Offshore Structures', OTH 88289, 111-120. (Littlejohn and Hughes jointly wrote the paper. Hughes provided the laboratory data under Littlejohn's supervision.) #56. RODGER, A.A., (1989) "Instrumentation Used to Monitor the LITTLEJOHN, G.S., Influence of Blasting on the Performance of HOLLAND, D.C. & Rock Bolts at Penmaenbach Tunnel" MOTHERSILLE, D.K.V. Proc. Conf. on Instrumentation in Geotechnical Engineering, University of Nottingham, 267-279. (Rodger and Littlejohn jointly wrote the paper and supervised Mothersille's and Holland's research work.) #58. LITTLEJOHN, G.S., (1989) "Dynamic Response of Rock Bolt Systems" RODGER, A.A., Proc. Int. Conf. on Foundations and Tunnels, MOTHERSILLE, D.K.V. University of London (Sept.), 2, 57-64. & HOLLAND, D.C. (Littlejohn and Rodger wrote the paper and supervised Mothersille's and Holland's research work.) #61. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #62. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #64. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. #74. RODGER, A.A., (1993) "Dynamic Response of Rock Bolts at Pen y Clip LITTLEJOHN, G.S., Tunnel in North Wales" HOLLAND, D.C. & Proc. Int. Cong, on Options for Tunnelling, Int. XU, H. Tunnelling Assoc., Amsterdam. (Rodger and Littlejohn jointly wrote the paper and supervised Holland's and Xu's research.) #75. LITTLEJOHN, G.S. (1993) "A Simple Device to Control Rock Bolt Tensioning" & CONWAY, J. Tunnels & Tunnelling, (in press). (Littlejohn and Conway jointly wrote the paper. Littlejohn planned and supervised the experimental work.)en
dc.publisherThe University of Edinburghen
dc.relation.ispartofAnnexe Thesis Digitisation Project 2019 Block 22en
dc.relation.isreferencedbyen
dc.titleStudies relating to ground anchorage systemsen
dc.typeThesis or Dissertationen
dc.type.qualificationlevelDoctoralen
dc.type.qualificationnameDSc Doctor of Scienceen


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