The present study aims to investigate whether or not there are affinities
between the Ugaritic texts and the Hebrew Bible with regard to the
nature and roles of divine beings ranked as lesser deities.
The first chapter investigates that the Ugaritic and biblical Hebrew texts
contain evidence of polytheistic backgrounds of the divine assembly,
which entails that it consists hierarchically of the higher deities and
other lesser deities who are associated with these higher deities.
The second chapter examines that the lesser deities in the Ugaritic and
biblical Hebrew texts are understood as having a kinship relation to
their master god(dess).
The third chapter scrutinises that whilst diverse titles are employed to
indicate the divine messengers in the Ugaritic texts, they are simply
expressed as [???? (?????)] in the Hebrew Bible, which is also attested
in the Ugaritic texts.
The fourth chapter observes that whilst the lesser deities appear as the
warrior deities with a diversity of titles in the context of the divine
warfare in the Ugaritic texts, the lesser deities in the Hebrew Bible are
represented also as warrior deities through various titles.
The last chapter arranges the miscellaneous roles of the lesser deities into
the categories of mediator deities, guardian deities, chanter deities, and
servant deities represented in both Ugaritic and biblical Hebrew
Through the striking parallels displayed between the lesser deities of the
Ugaritic texts and the Hebrew Bible, this research concludes that the
Hebrew religious tradition has shared the same theological conceptions
as Ugaritic religion.