(1) The superficial fasciae of the groin and perineal regions
have been investigated. in great detail in the male
subject from foetal life to old age.
(2) Certain hitherto unsuspected anatomical features of
great practical importance have been disclosed by the
research, particularly in regard to the fasciae of
Scarpa and of Colles . (3) An undescribed layer of fascia in the perineum has
been named the deep fascia of the perineum.
(4) The complicated method whereby the scrotum is slung
is analysed in detail and serves to throw some light
on the cause of the inequality in rate of growth of hernia.
(5) Certain fasciai pockets exist e in the perineum and groin
in a large percentage of cases. These pockets are
proportionately. better marked in the foetus than in
(6) A third orifice is described in the inguinal region
which has been named the third: in uinal riz . This
presents the form of. a ring in 5O of cases, and
the shape of a funnel in the remaining cases. it is
of vast importance in connection with imperfect .descent
of the testis. It is easily felt clinically.
(7) No evidence has been forthcoming in this research which
lends the least support to:-
(a) the supposed+"excavating" function of the
guberna:ulum, (b) the +traction" function of this band,
(c) the existence of the gubernacular tails
(8) It is shown that the spermatic cord lies as a rule
1/2" lateral to the pubic tubercle and not medial to
(9) Extravasation of urine is shown to extend largely as
an infiltration of the superficial fasciae rather than as
an extravasation deep to them,
(104 Femoral hernia may emerge above or below the attachment
of .Scarpa's fascia in the groin. The size of the hernia
and the direction it takes may be dependent on its
relationship to this fascia.
(ii) The literature of imperfect extra-abdominal testicular
descent is reviewed,
(12) A new explanation of this imperfection is put forward,
It is based on anatomical findings and may fittingly be
called the "anatomical explanation'', Partial descent
and ectopia are due to one or more of the following
(a) congenital anomalies or absence of the third
(b) congenital fasci.al pockets.
(c) congenital fascial ridges.
It is impossible to exclude as further possible
causes such factors as shortness of the mesoblastic elements of the cord, or adhesions. It is however
pointed out that such occurrences may be secondary and not
(13) The anatomical explanation of the various types of
ectopies is entered into in considerable detail, and the
genesis is explained.