ClimateXChange is Scotland's centre of expertise on climate change. We provide a research, advice and analysis service to policy teams and associated public agencies. Funded by the Scottish Government.

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Recent Submissions

  • Scoping a national peatland monitoring framework 

    Artz, Rebekka; Coyle, Mhairi; Donaldson-Selby, Gillian; Cooksley, Susan; Gimona, Alessandro; Pakeman, Robin; Hare, Matt (James Hutton Institute, 2023-03)
    Scotland is a peat-rich nation. Healthy peatlands deliver a wide range of ecosystem services, including carbon sequestration, carbon storage and a specialised biodiversity. Much of Scotland’s peat resource is damaged: ...
  • Measuring Scotland’s net zero and climate adaptation economy – A methodology and pilot analysis 

    Kennedy, Simon; Almqvist, Mattias; Parker, Robin; O’Gorman, Stefanie; Pritchard, Adam; Niemi, Malin (Ramboll UK Ltd, 2023-02)
    This report describes a methodology that the Scottish government can use to assess relative strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of net zero and climate adaptation activities in the Scottish economy. 
  • Network investment costs of the heat transition in Scotland 

    Nicolas Melchor Gutierrez, Jose; Yates, Matt; Morris, Owen; Hanna, Beth; Pedro, Nuno Fernandes (WSP UK, 2023)
    The report investigates costs of network investments required as a result of heat decarbonisation in Scotland and the impact on consumer bills.
  • A scenario-based approach to emissions reduction targets in Scottish agriculture 

    Eory, Vera; Topp, Kairsty; Rees, Bob; Jones, Stephanie; Waxenberg, Kaia; Barnes, Andrew; Smith, Pete; MacLeod, Michael; Wall, Eileen (Scotland’s Rural College, 2023-02)
    The Climate Change (Emissions Reduction Targets) (Scotland) Act 2019 sets the ambitious net-zero greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reduction targets by 2045. This report provides an updated assessment of the emission reduction ...
  • Decarbonisation of mobile agricultural machinery in Scotland – an evidence review 

    Baker, Peter; James, Nick; Myerscough, Rhianna; Conquest, Ann (LUC, 2023-02)
    Agricultural machinery is estimated to contribute around 5-10% of Scottish Agriculture’s greenhouse gas emissions. Agricultural land in Scotland covers 5.6 million hectares and the agriculture sector represented 19% of ...
  • Low carbon transport fuels – an evidence review 

    Ure, Andrew; Martin, Conall; Campbell, Michael; Lokesh, Kadam; McNaught, Colin; Twisse, Fiona (Ricardo, 2023-01)
    The report reviews the evidence and policy supporting the potential role of low carbon fuels in the transport sector of Scotland during the transition to zero emission transport.
  • The potential for hydrogen to reduce curtailment of renewable energy in Scotland 

    Hawker, Graeme; Oakley, Gareth (University of Strathclyde, 2023-01)
    In Scotland, wind energy is sometimes significantly higher than the transmission network’s capacity to transport the electricity to the rest of Great Britain. When this happens, payments are made to wind farms operators ...
  • Zero emissions heating in new buildings across Scottish Islands 

    Knox, Dominika; Mostovaya-Urushadze, Alexandra; Bryan, Jeff; Impesi, Isabella; Dunne, Hannah; Strachan, Stephen (Delta-EE and Changeworks, 2023-01)
    The report investigates the likely impacts of a requirement for zero direct emissions heating systems in new buildings on Scottish Islands and rural areas.
  • The future of the bus vehicle market in Scotland 

    Howgego, Tim; Orchard, Katherine; Riley, Richard (Element Energy, 2022-12)
    This report assesses some of the possible impacts for the future second-hand bus market from shifting to battery electric busses.
  • Encouraging sustainable travel behaviour in children, young people and their families 

    Colley, Kathryn; Brown, Caroline; Nicholson, Hebe; Hinder, Ben; Conniff, Anna (The James Hutton Institute, 2022-11)
    This research provides evidence to support the future development of integrated policy interventions to increase sustainable travel amongst Scotland’s CYP and their families. The research focuses on wider travel behaviours ...
  • An evidence review of data associated with non-domestic buildings 

    Vatougiou, Paraskevi; McCallum, Peter; Jenkins, David (Heriot-Watt University, 2022-08)
    Scotland’s Heat in Buildings Strategy sets out a pathway to zero emissions buildings by 2045 and details actions that will accelerate the transformation of the nation’s building stock. The Strategy commits to the conversion ...
  • Managing permanent grasslands for carbon sequestration in Scottish soils 

    Oyesiku-Blakemore, Joseph; Dondini, Marta (University of Aberdeen, 2022-07)
    Soil can act as a carbon store or a carbon sink. The extent to which it does this will contribute to how Scotland can meet its emissions-reduction commitments. Grasslands cover a large area of Scotland’s land and their ...
  • The potential for agroforestry to reduce net GHG emissions in Scotland through the Woodland Carbon Code 

    Saraev, Vadim; Low, Wen Hao; Beauchamp, Kate; Perks, Mike (Forest Research, 2022-07)
    Meeting greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions targets outlined in Scotland’s Climate Change Plan[1] (CCPu) will require significant change for all sectors, including land use. Woodland creation and tree planting targets ...
  • Climate action on Scottish islands: an initial mapping of the landscape 

    De Boer, Florianne; Harries, James; Kirk, Lachlan; Quintana, Henry; Shaikh, Sabina; Smyth, Kathryn; Watterson, John (Ricardo Energy & Environment, 2022-07)
    The Scottish Government’s Carbon Neutral Island project will support six Scottish islands to become carbon neutral by 2040. The aim is to support islands to run on 100% renewable energy, create circular economies, and ...
  • Clean Heat and Energy Efficiency Workforce Assessment 

    Karpathy, Zoltan; Clark, Tessa; Impesi, Isabella; Lancaster, Megan; Strachan, Stephen (Delta-EE, 2022-07)
    Abstract - To meet the Scottish Government’s ambitious climate change targets, there will need to be a significant increase in the deployment of energy efficiency and low carbon heat measures in domestic and non-domestic ...
  • Improving Emissions Assessment of Scottish Government Spending Decisions and the Scottish Budget 

    Black, James; Spowage, Mairi; Watts, Rob (Fraser of Allander Institute, 2022-06)
    This research project contributes to the Joint Budget Review on matters related to climate change between the Scottish Government and Scottish Parliament. It considers how to improve the extent to which decision making ...
  • Electric vehicle enabled buildings: evidence review of installation costs 

    Crouse, Monika; Trousdale, David; Mulley, Bipin; Mahmud, Moshiuzzaman; Cunningham, Scott (Wood Group UK, 2022-06)
    This research explores the difference in cost between the installation of electric vehicle (EV) charge points during initial construction or major renovation of a building as opposed to retrofitting at a later date. There ...
  • Taking a managed adaptive approach to flood risk management planning – evidence for guidance 

    Trewhella, Steven; Wilson, Nicola; Kuijk, Pippa van; Fenn, Teresa (Rivelin Bridge, 2022-06)
    Scottish Government guidance strongly encourages managed adaptive flood risk management. This research investigates how local authorities are currently developing adaptive flood risk management plans to inform the future guidance.
  • Scottish saltmarsh, sea-level rise, and the potential for managed realignment to deliver blue carbon gains 

    Austin, William; Smeaton, Craig; Houston, Alex; Balke, Thorsten (University of St Andrews, 2022-06)
    Vegetated coastlines, including seagrass, mangroves, and salt marshes, are valued for their capacity to sequester and store large amounts of organic carbon in their soils. The importance of ‘blue carbon’ habitats in ...
  • Understanding carbon sequestration from nature-based solutions 

    Baggaley, N; Britton, A; Sandison, F; Lilly, Allan; Stutter, M; Rees, R M; Reed, M; Buckingham, S (The James Hutton Institute, 2022-06)
    The International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN) defines nature-based solutions (NBS) as “actions to protect, sustainably manage, and restore natural or modified ecosystems that address societal challenges ...

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