Blame for all
Findler, Robert Bruce
We present a language that integrates statically and dynamically typed components, similar to the gradual types of Siek and Taha (2006), and extend it to incorporate parametric polymorphism. Our system permits a dynamically typed value to be cast to a polymorphic type, with the type enforced by dynamic sealing along the lines proposed by Pierce and Sumii (2000), Matthews and Ahmed (2008), and Neis, Dreyer, and Rossberg (2009), in a way that ensures all terms satisfy relational parametricity. Our system includes a notion of blame, which allows us to show that when more-typed and less-typed portions of a program interact, that any type failures are due to the less-typed portion.