A Review of Heat Decarbonisation Policies in Europe
European countries vary greatly in terms of how residential buildings are heated. These differences, built up over decades, reflect particular national resource endowments, economic resources and technical infrastructures. They also reflect different governance approaches and policy choice. This report reviews the heating technologies and heat policies of nine European countries: the UK (with a focus on Scotland), the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, France, Germany and Ireland). The report assesses how government policy has been used to change the way heat has been delivered, and current approaches to policy-driven heat decarbonisation. The report sets out in detail the policy instruments – financial incentives, regulations and tax structures – that are used to drive countries toward zero-carbon heating.