Investigating the effects of class composition and class size on pupils’ attainment in Scottish primary schools
Composite classes (also known as “multi-grade classes”) combine pupils from adjacent years into a single classroom. This classroom structure is widespread yet understudied. Quirks in the Scottish institutional structure allow us to clearly identify the casual effect of composite classes on pupils’ attainment. We also study the effects of class size which is an alternative policy lever that has been shown to affect attainment.