Reanalysis of existing data on perceived benefits, barriers and solutions to accessing greenspaces in deprived communities
This thesis was initially designed to include two papers, both relating to the study of compassion: a review paper focusing on the effectiveness of Compassion Focused Imagery (CFI) and an empirical qualitative research project exploring self-compassion with adults who experience Dissociative Seizures. Due to Covid-19 outbreak the empirical research project was terminated before the completion of data collection. Therefore a third paper was included in the thesis, which presents a secondary analysis of an existing dataset from a qualitative project unrelated to compassion. Paper 1 presents a systematic review of the effectiveness of CFI on psychological outcomes across clinical and non-clinical populations. The aims of the review were to provide qualitative synthesis of existing literature and to provide effect size calculations for outcome measures relevant to compassion literature (self-compassion, self-criticism and shame). Sixteen records were identified and reviewed. Most of the studies reported improvements in self-compassion and positive affect, reduction in self-criticism, shame and paranoia. Effect sizes ranged between 0.19- 0.99 across measures of self-compassion, self-criticism and shame. Methodological weaknesses and heterogeneity between the studies make it difficult to draw strong conclusions regarding the effectiveness of CFI as a stand-alone intervention. Paper 2 presents the rationale and methods for the terminated empirical project on Self-compassion and Dissociative Seizures. Dissociative Seizures refer to paroxysmal events that resemble epilepsy without the epileptic activity in the brain. The qualitative project had intended to explore patients‘ views and experiences with Self-Compassion and their perceived barriers and facilitators to taking a self-compassionate stance. Even though it was not possible to complete the project, it was felt important to document the work undertaken so far for reasons of transparency and for demonstration of relevant research competencies. Paper 3 presents a secondary analysis on an existing dataset which was initially recruited as part of an MSc research project in 2018. This was a qualitative research project exploring the views of participants from deprived communities, about the perceived benefits, barriers and proposed solutions to increasing engagement with greenspaces. The dataset was considered suitable for secondary analysis since first wave of analyses indicated divergence of themes among the research team. Eleven unidentifiable interview scripts were analysed using a constructivist Grounded Theory approach. Since external factors impacting on engagement are already well discussed in literature, the analysis presented focused on less well-covered themes and themes relating to internal factors. The emergent themes were discussed in the context of existing literature to facilitate future interventions for improving engagement.