Time perspective after trauma: a research portfolio
This thesis follows a research portfolio format and is carried out in part fulfilment of the academic component of the Doctorate in Clinical Psychology at the University of Edinburgh. The portfolio contains two independent research projects, an empirical study and a narrative synthesis, that are organised around the common theme of time perspective (TP; Zimbardo & Boyd, 1999) in the context of trauma. The empirical study tests TP in terms of its ability to predict depressive symptoms in a clinical sample. Given that this is the first study of TP in a mental health context, using a clinical sample, it was not possible to carry out a systematic review on this topic. Instead, rumination was chosen as a focus of the narrative synthesis study given that it shares substantial overlap with the theoretical concept of a time perspective bias, and specifically a past-negative temporal bias (PNTP). A PNTP is defined as an inflexible cognitive style where current thinking is substantially influenced by traumatic, negative and adverse experiences of the past (Zimbardo &Boyd, 1999). Time perspective theory predicts that such a bias will impact on healthy functioning negatively, but does not elaborate on this what this. The narrative synthesis is therefore not an exploration of time perspective per se, but investigates the impact of ruminative processing of past negative events, i.e. a concept sharing overlap with a PNTP-bias. Both studies were written in accordance to the guidance of the British Journal Of Psychology, (Impact factor 2016: 3.139; Journal Citation Reports, Word Limit: 8000 words) - Adaptations were made due to this document being submitted as part of an academic thesis portfolio. Figures and tables were, thus, included in the main text, rather than separately in a different file or at the end of the main text.