Pure subtype systems: a type theory for extensible software
This thesis presents a novel approach to type theory called “pure subtype systems”, and a core calculus called DEEP which is based on that approach. DEEP is capable of modeling a number of interesting language techniques that have been proposed in the literature, including mixin modules, virtual classes, feature-oriented programming, and partial evaluation. The design of DEEP was motivated by two well-known problems: “the expression problem”, and “the tag elimination problem.” The expression problem is concerned with the design of an interpreter that is extensible, and requires an advanced module system. The tag elimination problem is concerned with the design of an interpreter that is efficient, and requires an advanced partial evaluator. We present a solution in DEEP that solves both problems simultaneously, which has never been done before. These two problems serve as an “acid test” for advanced type theories, because they make heavy demands on the static type system. Our solution in DEEP makes use of the following capabilities. (1) Virtual types are type definitions within a module that can be extended by clients of the module. (2) Type definitions may be mutually recursive. (3) Higher-order subtyping and bounded quantification are used to represent partial information about types. (4) Dependent types and singleton types provide increased type precision. The combination of recursive types, virtual types, dependent types, higher-order subtyping, and bounded quantification is highly non-trivial. We introduce “pure subtype systems” as a way of managing this complexity. Pure subtype systems eliminate the distinction between types and objects; every term can behave as either a type or an object depending on context. A subtype relation is defined over all terms, and subtyping, rather than typing, forms the basis of the theory. We show that higher-order subtyping is strong enough to completely subsume the traditional type relation, and we provide practical algorithms for type checking and for finding minimal types. The cost of using pure subtype systems lies in the complexity of the meta-theory. Unfortunately, we are unable to establish some basic meta-theoretic properties, such as type safety and transitivity elimination, although we have made some progress towards these goals. We formulate the subtype relation as an abstract reduction system, and we show that the type theory is sound if the reduction system is confluent. We can prove that reductions are locally confluent, but a proof of global confluence remains elusive. In summary, pure subtype systems represent a new and interesting approach to type theory. This thesis describes the basic properties of pure subtype systems, and provides concrete examples of how they can be applied. The Deep calculus demonstrates that our approach has a number of real-world practical applications in areas that have proved to be quite difficult for traditional type theories to handle. However, the ultimate soundness of the technique remains an open question.