Spatial pattern of COVID-19 mortality and its relationship with socioeconomic factors in Scotland
As the spread of COVID-19 was too rapid and widespread at the beginning of the outbreak, much of the literature from around the world suggests that socioeconomic factors are indirectly or directly influencing increases or decreases in COVID-19 mortality. This study analyses the spatial patterns of early COVID-19 mortality in Scotland and explores the socio-economic factors influencing COVID-19 mortality and its spatial variation in Scotland and its central belt, using the intermediate zones as the study unit and March to December 2020 as the study time period. For the spatial pattern of COVID-19 mortality, this paper focuses on global and local spatial exploration of mortality data using Global Moran's I and Getis-Ord Gi* methods to identify hot and cold spots of mortality in Scotland. In order to explore the socio-economic factors, this study selected factors such as demographics, income, mental health, education and health services, etc. and mainly uses OLS and GWR for analysis and comparison to explore the socio-economic causes of regional mortality differences, indicating the existence of spatial variation in different influencing factors. For the prevention and management of the pandemic, epidemiological studies using spatial analysis can identify hot regions with a higher risk of contracting and explain reasons for regional variations in the deaths. This study also fills a gap in research on the spatial variation of socio-economic factors affecting COVID-19 mortality in the Scottish region.