Nurses' perception on the impact of technology on nursing care practice in the intensive care unit: a grounded theory approach
Using Charmaz's (2006) constructivist grounded theory methodology, this study sought to establish a theory that explains how nurses perceive the influence of technology on their nursing care practises. This study used individual in-depth interviews and participant observation as a primary data collection method. In addition, participant observations were conducted before participant interviews to understand the phenomenon and practises in the ICU and corroborate with the participants' stories. During semi-structured face-to-face interviews, 19 staff nurses, one nursing manager and one medical assistant from an adult general ICU at a public hospital in Malaysia shared their experiences. The grounded theory of the emancipatory practise of ICU nurses was developed by a continuous comparison analysis of transcribed interview data. The predicament of practice was explored within the context of the theme 'navigating through complexity,' which implies that nurses were confronted with a conflicting situation that prompted them to gravitate toward a more "technologized" rather than humanised approach. This option might lead to professional value conflicts and a feeling of powerlessness. In order to reconcile the conflict, nurses attempt to shape their ideal professional identity by incorporating humane and technological values into the care of their patients. A new care paradigm is incorporated into the professional identity that accommodates human needs from a technological standpoint. Emancipatory practise in the context of this research, refers to the practise in which nurses have the opportunity to self-reflect and become conscious of the significance of striking a balance between humanistic nursing and technological care. This awareness assists nurses in constructing a viable professional identity within an environment heavily influenced by technology. Emancipatory practise entails the practise that is not only done but also developed and altered as nurses attempt to construct and reconfigure how to operate in a 'complex and dynamic environment due to pervasive technology. A new practice that prioritise both technological advancements and humanistic nursing would be gaining traction, and this theory provided the health care authorities with a realistic assessment of the nursing workload necessary to facilitate this transformation.