Physico-chemical water quality in Ghana: Prospects for water supply technology implementation
During an extensive sampling trial in Ghana, a number of physico-chemical water quality problems have been identified. For example, pH values of the collected samples ranged from 3.69 to 8.88, while conductivity ranged from 10 to 45,000 mS/cm and turbidity from 0 to >542 NTU. Many water samples analysed breached the drinking water quality guidelines. High levels of heavy metals were found and also locations high in sulphate and nitrate. In some regions chemical contaminants such as fluoride occur naturally and result in a significant number of boreholes being capped. While such capping results in the protection of the population of exposure to such chemicals, it may increase the risk for microbiological safety if surface water sources are used.