Trace Contaminant Removal using Hybrid Membrane Processes in Water Recycling
Water recycling plays an essential role in integrated water management, especially in an arid country like Australia but also worldwide . Water recycling, however, has suffered extensive constraints due to "toilet to tap" media campaigns and "yuck factor" attitudes in the community. The support of the community for water recycling projects generally decreases as the personal contact with the recycled water increases . Some of the very valid concerns of the community stem from uncertainties involved in water recycling, such as the issue of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) potentially present in recycled waters or the ever growing group of endocrine disrupting chemicals have been of particular concern to sections of the community. Endocrine disrupters have the potential to interfere with our normal growth, development and reproduction. Modulation of that system could cause severe adverse health effects. Industrial chemicals, consumer chemicals and chemicals in the environment can be endocrine disrupters that mimic, enhance or inhibit the action of hormones [3, 4]. Sewage disposal to water sources may be a major exposure pathway for pharmaceuticals, synthetic and natural hormones, industrial chemicals to humans and wildlife, directly and via the food chain. This concerns disposal of treated effluents and applications of recycled water. This paper aims to address some of the uncertainties and risks involved in recycling technology and aims to stress caution and the need for well designed recycling projects. This risk expands to water treatment in situations where contaminated waters are treated.