Synthesis of Child Speech with HMM Adaptation and Voice Conversion
Audio, Speech, and Language Processing, IEEE Transactions on
The synthesis of child speech presents challenges both in the collection of data and in the building of a synthesizer from that data. We chose to build a statistical parametric synthesizer using the hidden Markov model (HMM)-based system HTS, as this technique has previously been shown to perform well for limited amounts of data, and for data collected under imperfect conditions. Six different configurations of the synthesizer were compared, using both speaker-dependent and speaker-adaptive modeling techniques, and using varying amounts of data. For comparison with HMM adaptation, techniques from voice conversion were used to transform existing synthesizers to the characteristics of the target speaker. Speaker-adaptive voices generally outperformed child speaker-dependent voices in the evaluation. HMM adaptation outperformed voice conversion style techniques when using the full target speaker corpus; with fewer adaptation data, however, no significant listener preference for either HMM adaptation or voice conversion methods was found.