Effect of high-pressure on molecular magnetism
The effect of pressure on a number of magnetically interesting compounds such as single-molecule magnets and dimeric copper and manganese molecules has been investigated to probe the validity of ambient magneto-structural correlations. The first chapter is an introduction to the equipment and methodologies that have been adopted to carry out the experimental high-pressure work. The second chapter reports the first combined high-pressure single crystal X-ray diffraction and high pressure magnetism study of four single-molecule magnets (SMMs). At 1.5 GPa the structures [Mn6O2(Et-sao)6(O2CPh(Me)2)2(EtOH)6] (1) – an SMM with a record effective anisotropy barrier of ~86 K – and [Mn6O2(Etsao) 6(O2C-naphth)2(EtOH)4(H2O)2] (2) both undergo significant structural distortions of their metallic skeletons which has a direct effect upon the observed magnetic response. Up to 1.5 GPa pressure the effect is to flatten the Mn-N-O-Mn torsion angles weakening the magnetic exchange between the metal centres. In both compounds one pairwise interaction switches from ferro- to antiferromagnetic, with the Jahn-Teller (JT) axes compressing (on average) and re-aligning differently with respect to the plane of the three metal centres. High pressure dc χMT plots display a gradual decrease in the low temperature peak value and slope, simulations showing a decrease in |J| with increasing pressure with a second antiferromagnetic J value required to simulate the data. The “ground states” change from S = 12 to S = 11 for 1 and to S = 10 for 2. Magnetisation data for both 1 and 2 suggest a small decrease in |D|, while out-of-phase (χM //) ac data show a large decrease in the effective energy barrier for magnetisation reversal. The third SMM is the complex [Mn3(Hcht)2(bpy)4](ClO4)3·Et2O·2MeCN (3·Et2O·2MeCN) that at 0.16 GPa loses all associated solvent in the crystal lattice, becoming 3. At higher pressures structural distortions occur changing the distances between the metal centres and the bridging oxygen atoms making |J| between the manganese ions weaker. No significant variations are observed in the JT axis of the only MnIII present in the structure. Highpressure dc χMT plots display a gradual decrease in the low temperature peak value and slope. Simulations show a decrease in J with increasing pressure although the ground state is preserved. Magnetisation data do not show any change in |D|. The fourth SMM, [(tacn)6Fe8O2(OH)12](ClO4)3.9Br4.1⋅6H2O, (4) is the largest inorganic compound ever studied at high-pressure. Up to 2.0 GPa the conformation of the complex remains largely unaffected, with the counter ions and water molecules moving around to accommodate a compression of the unit cell volume. High pressure magnetic susceptibility data collected up to 0.93 GPa confirm minimal changes in the intra-molecular exchange interactions. The third chapter focuses on three hydroxo-bridged CuII dimers: [Cu2(OH)2(H2O)2(tmen)2](ClO4)2 (5), [Cu2(OH)2(tben)2](ClO4)2 (6) and [Cu2(OH)2(bpy)2](BF4)2 (7) have been structurally determined up to 2.5, 0.9 and 4.7 GPa, respectively. 6 and 7 have never been reported before. Pressure imposes important distortions in the structures of all three complexes, particularly on the bond distances and angles between the metal centres and the bridging hydroxo groups. 5 undergoes a phase transition between 1.2 and 2.5 GPa caused by the loss of a coordinated water molecule. This leads to a loss of symmetry and dramatic changes in the molecular structure of the complex. The structural changes are manifested in different magnetic behaviours of the complexes as seen in dc susceptibility measurements up to ~0.9 GPa: J becomes less antiferromagnetic in 5 and 6 and more ferromagnetic in 7. The fourth chapter shows the compression of two oxo-bridged MnII/MnIII mixed valence dimers: [Mn2O2(bpy)4](ClO4)3⋅3CH3CN, (8) has been squeezed up to 2.0 GPa whilst [Mn2O2(bpy)4](PF6)3⋅2CH3CN⋅1H2O, (9) could be measured crystallographically up to 4.55 GPa. 9 has never been reported before, while 8 has been reported in a different crystallographic space group. The application of pressure imposes significant alterations in the structures of both complexes. In particular, in 8 the Mn-Mn separation is reduced by the contraction of some of the Mn-O bond distances, 9 shows essentially analogous behaviour: the Mn-Mn distance and nearly all the Mn-N bonds shrink significantly. The magnetic behaviour of the complexes has been measured up to 0.87 GPa for 8 and 0.84 GPa for 9, but neither display any significant differences with respect to their ambient data.