Ad hoc wireless networks with femto-cell deployment: a study
Bharucha, Zubin Rustam
Nowadays, with a worldwide market penetration of over 50% in the mobile telecommunications sector, there is also an unrelenting demand from the subscribers for ever increasing transmission rates and availability of broadband-like experience on the handset. Due to this, research in next-generation networks is rife. Such systems are expected to achieve peak data rates of up to 1 Gbps through the use of innovative technologies such as multiple-input and multipleoutput (MIMO) and orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA). Two more ways of boosting capacity have also been identified: shrinking cell sizes and greater reuse of resources in the same area. This forms the foundation of the research presented in this thesis. For operators, the costs involved with planning and deploying additional network infrastructure to provide a dense coverage of small, high capacity cells cannot be justified. Femto-cells, however, promise to fulfil this function. These are user-deployed mini base stations (BSs), known as home evolved NodeBs (HeNBs), which are envisaged to be commonplace in homes and offices in the coming years. Since they drastically reduce communication distances to user equipments (UEs) and reuse the resources already utilised in the macro-cell, they help boost the system capacity significantly. However, there are issues to be addressed with the deployment of femto-cells, such as increased interference to the system and methods of access. These and other problems are discussed and analysed in this thesis. One of the first steps towards femtocell research has been the study of the time division duplex (TDD) underlay concept, whereby an indoor UE acts as a relay between the evolved NodeB (eNB) and other indoor UEs. In order to gain a deeper understanding of how and under what conditions such a self-organising network can be deployed, a mathematical analysis of the distribution of path losses in a network of uniformly distributed nodes has been performed. In connection with this, research has also been done in the identification of well connected nodes in such networks. Next, extensive simulations on traditional cellular networks with embedded femto-cells have been carried out in order to demonstrate the benefits of femto-cell deployment. This research has shown that femto-cells can cause severe downlink (DL) interference to badly placed macro UEs. Finally, a novel interference avoiding technique that addresses this problem is investigated.