Hadamard subtractions for infrared singularities in quantum field theory
Burton, George Edmund C.
Feynman graphs in perturbative quantum field theory are replete with infrared divergences caused by the presence of massless particles, how-ever these divergences are known to cancel order-by-order when all virtual and real contributions to a given cross section are summed and smeared against an experimental resolution. In this thesis we treat the infrared problem formally in the language of distribution theory so that we can remove the divergences with local momentum space subtractions using Hadamard's procedure. This is analogous with the BPHZ mechanism for removing UV divergences. Our aim is to show how it is possible to make both the real and virtual subtractions analytically such that we are left with manifestly finite integrands. For the virtual graphs we present a new decomposition of the integrand in momentum space and remove those terms that are divergent. For the real graphs we show how the Taylor expansion of the momentum conserving delta function allows the explicit removal of the divergent part; furthermore we show that the homogeneous properties of the soft structure greatly simplifies this procedure.
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