Synthesis of the C(1)-C(9) fragment of disorazole C1 and novel heterocyclic analogues
Niblock, Helen Sarah
A highly convergent strategy for the synthesis of the antitubulin polyketide disorazole C1 is proposed based around the alkyne precursor I, featuring a novel Evans-Tishchenko/ring closing alkyne metathesis approach. Due to the inherent symmetry of the molecule this retrosynthesis leads to two fragments: a β- hydroxyketone II and the oxazole C(1)-(9) fragment III. A review of previous syntheses of disorazole C1 and established structure activity relationships (SARs) highlights a gap in current knowledge relating to the role of the oxazole in tubulin binding. Therefore, the focus of this research has been towards developing new routes for the synthesis of the C(1)-C(9) fragment that can be adapted to the synthesis of heterocyclic analogues to further establish the SAR of disorazole C1. Chapter 2 focuses on a disconnection at the C(5)-C(6) bond and a novel synthesis of the racemic C(1)-C(9) fragment has been achieved via a lithiation of methyl 2- methyl-1,3-oxazole-4-carboxylate and coupling to aldehyde V. First generation asymmetric routes to the C(1)-C(9) fragment centred on i. a biomimetic amino acid condensation route via an oxazoline intermediate based on the precedent of Meyers et al. and ii. a C(4)-C(5) disconnection approach based around the epoxide VII; are discussed in chapter 3. A second generation C(4)-C(5) disconnection centred on the novel tosylate VIII is discussed in chapter 4. Attempts to synthesise the parent C(1)- C(9) oxazole fragment using the tosylate VIII via i. a palladium catalysed C-H activation of ethyl 4-oxazole carboxylate and ii. lithiation of oxazole are reported. Coupling of fragment VIII (X = OTs) with ethyl 1H-pyrazole-4-carboxylate and a CuAAC coupling of the azide derived from tosylate VIII with methyl propiolate has allowed the successful completion of the synthesis of pyrazole and triazole analogues of this fragment.