Adaptive control for active distribution networks
Sansawatt, Thipnatee Punim
Rise of the global environmental awareness and climate change impacts caused by greenhouse gases emissions brings about a revolution in the power and energy industries to reduce fossil fuels and promote low-carbon and renewable distributed generation (DG). The new dimensions, mainly encouraged by the governments’ legislative targets and incentives, have allowed the development of DG worldwide. In the U.K., renewable DG especially wind is being connected on distribution networks and ranges widely in scales. Despite the growing number of potential DG sites, the surplus generation present on the passive networks can lead to some technical problems. In particular, rural networks where wind farms exist are prone to voltage rise and line thermal constraints. In order to accommodate new DG and ensure security of supply and network reliability, active management to mitigate these issues are required. In addition, the duties to provide cost-effective DG connections at avoided expensive investment incurred from conventional solutions, e.g., reinforcement and maintain robust network are a major challenge for Distribution Network Operators (DNOs). This thesis endeavours to develop an adaptive control scheme that provides local and real-time management against voltage variations and line capacity overload at the point of wind connections on rural distribution networks. Taking into account maximising power exports and providing an economically-viable control scheme, the wind turbine’s capability, comprising reactive power control and active power curtailment, is used. Whilst the thesis concentrates on the decentralised control applying several different algorithms, in addition, semi-coordinated and centralised approaches that adopt on-load tap changing transformers’ regulation and Optimal Power Flow tool are developed. Comparisons of these approaches based upon measures, i.e., economics, DG penetration and performance are determined. As an outcome, the developed scheme can enable growing integration of renewable DG on distribution networks and can be seen as an interim solution for the DNOs towards Smart Distribution Networks.