Lines of class distinction : an economic and social history of the British Tramcar
The tramcar was primarily a phenomenon of the non-metropolitan towns and cities of Britain. Its contribution within the London area was muted by legal barriers, the number of competing transport modes, and the very size of the city itself. For these reasons the London tramway scene is mentioned as and when it has direct relevance and bearing to the national situation. Its size made it sui generis, and fortunately, the story of its transport has been recounted by such as T C Barker and M Robbins, J R Day and others. The tramway histories of Edinburgh and Glasgow were chosen as case studies for three reasons. Firstly, I know both cities fairly well, especially the former, and such acquaintance aids one's appreciation of the subtleties of local politics and tramway developments. Secondly, in terms of tramway micro-economics the tramway management systems as pursued over the years of tramway operation in the cities give examples of every type of management combination possible from outright local authority ownership and running to pure private enterprise control. Finally, in terms of the tramcar's development and social effects, the cities offer remarkable extremes: Edinburgh has an atypical cable traction system which restricted suburban developments whilst Glasgow finished up with one of the most extensive tramway networks in the world. Between them, these two Scottish cities provide enough detailed and personalised data to confirm and advance hypotheses drawn from national sources.