Biostratigraphy and microfacies of the cretaceous sediments in the Indus Basin, Pakistan
In this thesis I document the biostratigraphy of two Cretaceous sections in Pakistan, the Chichali Nala Section and the Moghal Kot Section. Furthermore, I document the stratigraphy of the so-called Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) in the Moghal Kot Section. In addition, I establish potential links between the planktonic foraminiferal evolution and these OAEs in the Moghal Kot Section. Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) are established for the Valanginian time by using the TEX86 and δ18O proxies in the Chichali Nala Section. The new biostratigraphy of the Chichali Nala Section shows that the ages of the sediments are mainly Valanginian. The biostratigraphy of the Moghal Kot Section show ranges in age from the Early Aptian to Early Maastrichtian. Seven OAEs were recorded in the Moghal Kot Section based on the combined study of biostratigraphy, microfacies, and δ13C analysis. These OAEs correlate well with previously documented OAEs elsewhere, therefore the new record of the OAEs in the Moghal Kot Section confirms the widespread occurrence of these events, possibly all global in nature. A quantitative review of the planktonic foraminiferal evolution in the Moghal Kot Section indicates that the environmental changes along the OAE2 have strongly forced the evolution of the planktonic foraminifera. Conversely, no clear relationship is observed between other OAEs and planktonic foraminiferal evolution in the same section. The SST results based on the TEX86 in the Chichali Nala Section show that the surface ocean was consistently much warmer (10-12 oC) than today at the paleolatitude of ~-35o during the Valanginian time. Such warm conditions are also supported by the spore and pollen assemblages of the Chichali Nala Section. Collectively the two datasets indicate strongly that the Valanginian world was overall extremely warm. Such warming during the Valanginian is incompatible with previously suggested cooler conditions during this time period.