Non–perturbative aspects of physics beyond the Standard Model
The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and the four major experiments set up along its 27 kilometers of circumference (ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb), have recently started to explore the high–energy frontier at √s = 8 TeV, and will move to even higher energy in just about 2 years. The aim of physics searches at LHC experiments was to complete the picture of the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particles with the discovery of the Higgs boson and to look for specific signatures of models extending the current understanding of particle interactions, at zero and non–zero temperature. In 2012, the official discovery of the Higgs boson, the only missing particle of the StandardModel, was announced by ATLAS and CMS. Other important results include the measurement of rare decay modes in heavy quarks systems, and indications of CP violation in charm decays by LHCb. Signatures of beyond the Standard Model (BSM) physics are currently being looked for in the experimental data, and this often requires the knowledge of quantities that can be computed only with non–perturbative methods. This thesis focuses on some possible extensions of the SM and the analysis of interesting physical observables, like masses or decay rates, calculated using non– perturbative lattice methods. The approach followed for the main part of this work is to model BSM theories as effective field theories defined on a lattice. This lattice approach has a twofold advantage: it allows us to explore non– renormalizable gauge theories by imposing an explicit gauge–invariant cutoff and it allows us to go beyond perturbative results in the study of strongly interacting systems. Some of the issues of the SM that we will try to address include, for example, the hierarchy problem and the origin of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB). We investigate non–perturbatively the possibility that the lightness of the mass for an elementary scalar field in a four–dimensional quantum field theory might be due to a higher–dimensional gauge symmetry principle. This idea fits in the Gauge–Higgs unification approach to the hierarchy problem and the results we present extend what is known from perturbative expectations. Extra dimensional models are also often used to approach DEWSB. Another approach to DEWSB implies a new strongly interacting gauge sector that extends the SM at high energies and it is usually referred to as Technicolor. The phenomenological consequences of Technicolor can only be studied by non– perturbative methods at low energy since the theory is strongly coupled at large distances. We perform a comprehensive lattice study of fermionic and gluonic scalar bound states in one of the candidate theories for Technicolor BSM physics. We relate our findings to the nature of the newly discovered Higgs boson. New physics is also commonly believed to be hidden in the flavour sector of the SM. In this sector, lattice calculations of non–perturbative input parameters are needed in order to make precise predictions and extract signals of possible new physics. In particular, heavy quark physics on the lattice is still in development and it is important to understand the relevant discretisation errors. We describe a preliminary study of the mixing parameter of heavy–light mesons oscillations in a partially–quenched scenario, using staggered dynamical fermions and domain wall valence fermions.