Positive and Negative Practical Reasons
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In this essay, I argue that positive and negative practical reasons have asymmetrical normative force. In other words, the negative reasons for one action, and the positive reasons for another action that they correspond to, do not have equivalent normative force. This asymmetry is defended by appealing to Dancy's holism about practical reasons, and Greenspan's critical conception of practical reasons. It is also vindicated by appealing to an analogous asymmetry among positive and negative theoretical reasons. If this is right, then we are able to avoid problems arising for the standard account of practical deliberation, whereby we weigh positive and negative reasons to determine an overall verdict of what to do.