Advanced load modelling for power system studies
Collin, Adam John
Although power system load modelling is a mature research area, there is a renewed interest in updating available load models and formulating improved load modelling methodologies. The main drivers of this interest are the introduction of new types of non-conventional (e.g. power electronic interfaced) loads, the requirement to operate power supply systems with increasing levels of renewable distributed generation and the implementation of various load control functionalities (e.g. demand side management). As the majority of existing load models do not allow for a full and precise analysis of these new operating conditions, it is essential to develop new load models and update load modelling techniques. This thesis presents a detailed study of modern loads, focussing on the requirements for their correct representation in power system analysis. The developed models of the individual loads are then combined using a new load aggregation methodology for developing aggregate load models, suitable for the analysis of both existing and future power supply systems (so called ’smart grids’). The methodology uses a circuit-based load modelling approach, as this allows reproduction of the instantaneous current waveforms of the modelled load for any given supply voltage. This approach retains all electrical characteristics of the loads and provides a more realistic representation of some important phenomena (e.g. harmonic cancellation and attenuation due to load and supply system interactions) which are often neglected in traditional load modelling procedures. Case studies of the UK residential and commercial load sectors are presented as illustrations of the load aggregation methodology. The results show significant short-term and long-term temporal variations in the load characteristics, which are not available or reported in the existing literature. This information allows for a more comprehensive assessment of demand-side management functionalities and correlation with locally connected distributed generation. Both of these effects are investigated in the thesis by quantifying the possible extent and range of changes in power system performance for some expected near future changes in load configurations and network operating conditions.