Low complexity radio resource management for energy efficient wireless networks
Vaca Ramirez, Rodrigo Alberto
Energy consumption has become a major research topic from both environmental and economical perspectives. The telecommunications industry is currently responsible for 0.7% of the total global carbon emissions, a figure which is increasing at rapid rate. By 2020, it is desired that CO2 emissions can be reduced by 50%. Thus, reducing the energy consumption in order to lower carbon emissions and operational expenses has become a major design constraint for future communication systems. Therefore, in this thesis energy efficient resource allocation methods have been studied taking the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard as an example. Firstly, a theoretical analysis, that shows how improvements in energy efficiency can directly be related with improvements in fairness, is provided using a Shannon theory analysis. The traditional uplink power control challenge is re-evaluated and investigated from the view point of interference mitigation rather than power minimization. Thus, a low complexity distributed resource allocation scheme for reducing the uplink co-channel interference (CCI) is presented. Improvements in energy efficiency are obtained by controlling the level of CCI affecting vulnerable mobile stations (MSs). This is done with a combined scheduler and a two layer power allocation scheme, which is based on non-cooperative game theory. Simulation results show that the proposed low complexity method provides similar performance in terms of fairness and energy efficiency when compared to a centralized signal interference noise ratio balancing scheme. Apart from using interference management techniques, by using efficiently the spare resources in the system such as bandwidth and available infrastructure, the energy expenditure in wireless networks can also be reduced. For example, during low network load periods spare resource blocks (RBs) can be allocated to mobile users for transmission in the uplink. Thereby, the user rate demands are split among its allocated RBs in order to transmit in each of them by using a simpler and more energy efficient modulation scheme. In addition, virtual Multiple-input Multiple-output (MIMO) coalitions can be formed by allowing single antenna MSs and available relay stations to cooperate between each other to obtain power savings by implementing the concepts of spatial multiplexing and spatial diversity. Resource block allocation and virtual MIMO coalition formation are modeled by a game theoretic approach derived from two different concepts of stable marriage with incomplete lists (SMI) and the college admission framework (CAF) respectively. These distributed approaches focus on optimizing the overall consumed power of the single antenna devices rather than on the transmitted power. Moreover, it is shown that when overall power consumption is optimized the energy efficiency of the users experiencing good propagation conditions in the uplink is not always improved by transmitting in more than one RB or by forming a virtual MIMO link. Finally, it is shown that the proposed distributed schemes achieve a similar performance in bits per Joule when compared to much more complex centralized resource allocation methods.