Demographics of dark-matter haloes in standard and non-standard cosmologies
Mead, Alexander James
This thesis explores topics related to the formation and development of the large-scale structure in the Universe, with the focus being to compute properties of the evolved non-linear density field in an approximate way. The first three chapters form an introduction: Chapter 1 contains the theoretical basis of modern cosmology, Chapter 2 discusses the role of N-body simulations in the study of structure formation and Chapter 3 considers the phenomenological halo model. In Chapter 4 a novel method of computing the matter power spectrum is developed. This method uses the halo model directly to make accurate predictions for the matter spectrum. This is achieved by fitting parameters of the model to spectra from accurate simulations. The final predictions are good to 5% up to k = 10 hMpc-1 across a range of cosmological models at z = 0, however accuracy degrades at higher redshift and at quasi-linear scales. Chapter 5 is dedicated to a new method of rescaling a halo catalogue that has previously been generated from a simulation of a specific cosmological model to a different model; a gross rescaling of the simulation box size and redshift label takes place, then individual halo positions are modified in accord with the large scale displacement field and their internal structure is altered. The final power spectrum of haloes can be matched at the 5% level up to k = 1 hMpc-1, as can the spectrum of particles within haloes reconstituted directly from the rescaled catalogues. Chapter 6 applies the methods of the previous two chapters to modified gravity models. This is done in as general a way possible but tests are restricted to f(R) type models, which have a scale-dependent linear growth rate as well as having 'chameleon screening' - by which modifications to gravity are screened within some haloes. Taking these effects into account leads to predictions of the matter spectrum at the 5% level and rescaled halo distributions that are accurate to 5% in both real and redshift space. For the spectrum of halo particles it is demonstrated that accurate results may be obtained by taking the enhanced gravity in some haloes into account.
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